VLCP0521c Clinical Introduction to Surgery I - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

 

Course objectives

The aim of the training in the 1st term of the surgical propedeutics is to introduce the main principles of the surgical care and treatment, training of the basic surgical procedures. The important part of the tuition is knowledge of the complications, its prevention and treatment and also the basic principles, techniques and specifics of the anesthesiology, urology, plastic surgery and children surgery. With the completion of this course the student should be able to provide complete clinical investigation of the surgical patient, and also to give an idea of the direction of the investigational algorithm.

Syllabus

·         Structure and function of the surgical department

·         History of the surgical disease, physical signs and clinical investigation, medical records

·         X-rays, ultrasound and endoscopy in surgery

·         Operation room and its equipment, asepsis and antisepsis, antibotics

·         Surgical instruments

·         Surgical procedures, sewing, knotting

·         Post-op intensive care

·         Blood transfusions and blood derivatives

·         Parenteral and enteral nutrition, diets

·         Postoperative complications, shock

·         Local and general anesthesia

·         Basic principles and techniques in urology

·         Basic principles of the plastic surgery

·         Specific problems in children surgery

Literature

·         Essentials of surgery. Edited by James Becker - Arthur F. Stucchi. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, 2006. p. ;. ISBN 0-7216-8186-7. info

·         ZEMAN, Miroslav. Chirurgická propedeutika. 2., přeprac. a dopl. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2000. 516 s. ISBN 80-7169-705-2. info

·         Současná chirurgická diagnostika a léčba. Edited by Lawrence W. Way - František Antoš - Miloš Hájek. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 1998. 800 s., ob. ISBN 80-7169-397-9. info

·         Basic surgery. Edited by Hiram C. Polk - Bernard Gardner - H. Harlan Stone. 5th ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 1995. xviii, 102. ISBN 0-942219-74-0. info

·         Hamilton Bailey`s demonstrations of physical signs in clinical surgery. Edited by Hamilton Bailey - Allan Clain. 17th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. xiv, 622 s. ISBN 0-7506-0613-4. info

Bookmarks

https://is.muni.cz/auth/ln/tag/LF:VLCP0521c!

Teaching methods

The tuition has a form of presentations with the practical examples of the patients records (X-rays, CT scans, transfusion applications, application of the parenteral and enteral nutrition) and following discussion about above mentioned themes.

Assessment methods

Giving the course-unit credit is conditioned by full attendance in the lessons and successfully written test based on the taught themes knowledge.

Further comments (probably available only in Czech)

Study Materials
Information on completion of the course: má-li student již ukončen blok stáží
The course can also be completed outside the examination period.
The course is taught annually.


VLCP0521c Clinical Introduction to Surgery I – lecture

Extent and Intensity

2/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: without completion

Course objectives

Main objectives is theoretically introduction of surgery for medical students, these lectures inform them about basic principles, surgery and procedures.

Syllabus

During the lectures the basic principles of the general Surgery and the principal methods of the clinical investigation will be presented.

• 1. Introduction, methods of clinical examination

• 2. Pre-operative care

• 3. Operation rooms,instruments, apparatuses

• 4. Local and general Anestehesia

• 5. Antisepsis, asepsis

• 6. Operations, basic types of operations

• 7. Bleeding, blood transfusion

• 8. Shock

• 9. Post-operative reaction and complications

• 10.Surgical dietology, enteral and parenteral nutrition

Literature

·         Hamilton Bailey`s demonstrations of physical signs in clinical surgery. Edited by Hamilton Bailey - Allan Clain. 17th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. xiv, 622 s. ISBN 0-7506-0613-4.\

Bookmarks

https://is.muni.cz/auth/ln/tag/LF:VLCP0521p!

Teaching methods

Lectures

Assessment methods

This lecture is not credited, it is a part of continual preparation for state final examination in surgery at the end of the education.

VLCP0622c Clinical Introduction to Surgery II - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The aim of the training in the 2nd term of the surgical propedeutics is to introduce the main types of surgical wounds, their local and systemic treatment, next obtaining of the knowledge and practical skills (according to the availability of the simulators and the department possibilities) of the basic surgical techniques (bandage application, wound debridement and dressing application). The part of the tuition are lessons from anesthesiology and children surgery. With the completion of this course the student should be able to provide (under the supervision and with the help of the surgeon) basic surgical procedures (wound sewing, venepuncture, plaster bandage application) and completion of the patients clinical records. The tuition has a form of presentations with the practical bedside or outpatient clinic examples and following discussion.

Syllabus

·         shock

·         metabolic disorders at the surgical ICU

·         wounds

·         burns, frostbite

·         surgical instruments, injury of the tendons

·         plaster bandage, orthesis

·         surgical infections

·         venous, arterial access

·         dressing

·         case history

·         recapitulation

Literature

·         Základy speciální chirurgie. Edited by Pavel Pafko. 1. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2008. 385 s. ISBN 978-80-7262-402-7. info

·         Essentials of surgery. Edited by James Becker - Arthur F. Stucchi. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, 2006. p. ;. ISBN 0-7216-8186-7. info

·         VODIČKA, Josef. Speciální chirurgie. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2006. 313 s. ISBN 80-246-1101-5. info

·         Speciální chirurgie. Edited by Miroslav Zeman. 2. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2004. xxiii, 575. ISBN 80-7262-260-9. info

·         Speciální chirurgie :učebnice pro lékařské fakulty. Edited by Jiří Hoch - Jan Leffler. 1. vyd. Praha: MAXDORF-JESSENIUS, 2001. 224 s., il. ISBN 80-85912-44-9. info

·         ZEMAN, Miroslav. Chirurgická propedeutika. 2., přeprac. a dopl. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2000. 516 s. ISBN 80-7169-705-2. info

·         Současná chirurgická diagnostika a léčba. Edited by Lawrence W. Way - František Antoš - Miloš Hájek. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 1998. 800 s., ob. ISBN 80-7169-397-9. info

·         Basic surgery. Edited by Hiram C. Polk - Bernard Gardner - H. Harlan Stone. 5th ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 1995. xviii, 102. ISBN 0-942219-74-0. info

·         Hamilton Bailey`s demonstrations of physical signs in clinical surgery. Edited by Hamilton Bailey - Allan Clain. 17th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. xiv, 622 s. ISBN 0-7506-0613-4. info

Bookmarks

https://is.muni.cz/auth/ln/tag/LF:VLCP0622c!

Teaching methods

The tuition has a form of presentations with the practical bedside examples of the patients records and procedures (results of laboratory tests, wound care, plaster bandage application, small surgical procedures participation) and following discussion about above mentioned themes.

Assessment methods

Giving the course-unit credit is conditioned by full attendance in the lessons and successfully written test based on the taught themes knowledge. The term is terminated with the oral exam. Exam consists of practical (surgical instruments, bandages, X-rays or CT scans) and oral parts.

Further comments (probably available only in Czech)

Study Materials
The course is taught annually.

 


VLCP0622p Clinical Examination in Surgery II - lecture

Extent and Intensity

2/0/0. 4 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

Main objectives is theoretically introduction of surgery for medical students, these lectures inform them about basic principles, surgery and procedures.

Syllabus

·         Physical examination in Surgery Part II.

·         Traumatology, Traumatic disasters, War Surgery

·         Suffocating, tracheostomy, pneumothorax

·         Wounds

·         Critical Care and Metabolism in Surgery

·         Burns

·         Blast injury, Chemical burns, Current injury, Frostbite

·         Injury of muscles & tendons

·         Dressing, imobilization, transport

·         Fractures

·         Luxations

·         Infections in Surgery, Antibiotics, Chemotherapy

·         Surgical Oncology, Surgical Judgement, Surgical Responsibility

Literature

·         Hamilton Bailey`s demonstrations of physical signs in clinical surgery. Edited by Hamilton Bailey - Allan Clain. 17th ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1994. xiv, 622 s. ISBN 0-7506-0613-4. info

·         Chirurgická propedeutika :učebnice pro lékařské fakulty. Edited by Vladimír Balaš - Jarmila Drábková - Miloslav Duda - Milan Med. [1. vyd.]. Praha: Grada-Avicenum, 1993. 487 s. ISBN 80-85623-45-5. info

·         ZEMAN, Miroslav. Chirurgická propedeutika. 2., přeprac. a dopl. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2000. 516 s. ISBN 80-7169-705-2. info

Bookmarks

https://is.muni.cz/auth/ln/tag/LF:VLCP0622p!

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

Practical test (bandage, surgical instruments, X-ray images)
Theoretic test (3 questions).

Language in which the course is taught

Czech

Further comments (probably available only in Czech)

Study Materials
The course is taught annually.

 


VLFA0621c Pharmacology I - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/3/0. 5 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

On completion of the course the student will be able to use formally correct terminology belonging to the valid Pharmacopoea in prescription and making of drug dosage forms of both individually prepared and bulk preparations. The student should be able to understand principles of "pharmacological thinking" for choosing a drug, dosing regimen, pharmacokinetic parameter calculation, differences in administration routes and specifics of pediatric and geriatric pharmacotherapy including possible impact of drug-drug interactions.

Syllabus

·         1st week

·         Topic: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF PHARMACOLOGY

·         Course content: Organisation of practical courses and lectures. Recommended textbooks. Pharmacological calculations. Introduction to the latin terminology used in drug prescription. Pharmacopoea.

·         Getting ready for next lesson: Repetition of latin terminology.

·         2nd week

·         Topic: GENERAL RULES OF THE DRUG PRESCRIPTION

·         Course content: Drug prescriptions: Elements of the drug prescription. Prescription of individual and manufactured preparations. Legislation of drug prescription. Prescription of narcotic and psychotropic agents. Drug incompatibilities. Drug dosology in paediatrics. Getting ready for the next lesson: Repetition of latin terminology, general rules of drug prescrition.

·         3rd week

·         Topic: SOLID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS.

·         Course content: Powders for external and internal use, capsules, tablets, teas - composition, prescription; suppositories. Terminology, classification.

·         Video-programme: Industrial production of solid drug forms.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Calculations in pharmacology.

·         REVISING TEST: LATIN TERMINOLOGY AND ABBREVIATIONS, BASICS OF PRESCRIPTION AND BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL TERMS.

·         4th week

·         Topic: FLUID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS FOR FOR THE EXTERNAL USE, ORAL AND PARENTERAL USE.

·         Course content: Application and rinse solutions; eye, ear and nose lotions, suspensions - composition and prescription. Solutions for oral administration, drops and tinctures, injections and intravenous infusions.

·         Video-programme: Ready-made solutions for injections and infusions.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Latin names of adjuvants.

·         5th week

·         Topic: SOFT, MELTING AND GASEOUS DRUG DOSAGE FORMS

·         Course content: Ointments, pastes, plasters - composition and prescription.

·         Video-programme: External preparations.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Repetition of general prescription. PLEASE BRING LAB COATS FOR THE NEXT LESSON!

·         6. week

·         Topic: PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF SELECTED DRUG DOSAGE FORMS.

·         Course content: Individual preparation of the selected dosage forms (capsules, suppositorias, ointments...)

·          

·         REVISING TEST: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION.

·          

·         7. week

·         Topic: INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY

·         Course content: Pharmacological experiments. Laboratory animals. Protocol. Methods used in pre-clinical experiments.

·         Video-programme: Laboratory animals handling.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Transport of drugs across biological barriers.

·         8. week

·         Topic: INTRODUCTION TO THE PHARMACOKINETICS.

·         Course content: Basic pharmacokinetic processes and parameters. One- and two-compartment kinetic models. Kinetics of the intravascular and extravascular drug administration. Practical pharmacokinetic calculations.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Pharmacokinetic calculations. Please bring ruler and calculator with you!

·         9. week

·         Topic: PRACTICAL PHARMACOKINETIC COMPUTATIONS.

·         Course content: Computer techniques in pharmacokinetics. Calculations of the basic pharmacokinetic parameters: Work with PC: software MW PHARM. Therapeutic drug monitoring.

·         Getting ready for the next lesson: Repetition of anatomy and physiology of peripheral nervous system.

·         10. week

·         Topic: PHARMACOLOGY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM-CHOLINOMIMETICS.

·         Course content: Terminology, receptors, agonists and antagonists, pharmacological control of autonomic functions.

·         Video-programme: Cholinergic transmission.

·         11. week

·         Topic: PHARMACOLOGY OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.

·         Course content: Adrenergic receptors, their agonists and antagonists.

·         Video-programme: Beta-adrenergic receptors.

·         12. week

·         Topic: ANTISEPTICS, DISINFECTANS, DERMATOLOGICS, OPHTHALMOLOGICS, ORL DRUGS.

·         Course content: Drugs used in dermatology, surgery, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology and their prescription.

·         Getting ready for next lesson: The next lesson takes place in the Centre of medicinal plants on Údolní street!

·         13. week

·         Topic: EXCURSION TO THE CENTRE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS.

·         14. week

·         Topic: PHARMACOLOGY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS.

·         Course content: History, classification and chemistry of plant drugs, their practical medicinal use.

·          

·         FINAL REVISION TEST

·          

·         CREDITS.

Literature

·         Základní a aplikovaná farmakologie. Edited by Dagmar Lincová - Hassan Farghali. 2., dopl. a přepr. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2007. xxiv, 672. ISBN 9788072633730. info

·         http://portal.med.muni.cz/clanek-461-farmakovigilance-a-propagace-leciv.html

·         DOSTÁLEK, Miroslav, Jan JUŘICA, Eva JANOŠTÍKOVÁ and Lucia ZAHRADNÍKOVÁ. Farmakokinetika (Pharmacokinetics). ČR: Grada, 2006. 220 pp. Farmacie a farmakologie. ISBN 80-247-1464-7. info

·         http://portal.med.muni.cz/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=367

·         Rang & Dale's pharmacology :with student consult online access. Edited by H. P. Rang. : Churchill Livingstone, 2007. ISBN 0443069115. info

·         Ritter, James M. - Lewis, Lionel D. - Mant, Timothy G.K. - Ferro, Albert. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th Ed., Hodder Arnold, 2008. 465 s. ISBN 978-0-340-90046-8

·         Pharmaceutical Practice, 3rd Ed. Winfield, A.J. & Richards, R.M.E., eds. Churchill Livingstone, 2004, ISBN 0443 07206 X

·         HOWLAND, Richard D. and Mary J. MYCEK. Pharmacology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. vii, 552 s. ISBN 0-7817-4118-1. info

·         Waller, Derek - Renwick, Andrew G. - Hillier, Keith. Medical pharmacology and therapeutics. 3rd ed. New York : Elsevier Saunders, 2009. ix, 744 p. ISBN 0-7020-2991-2.

·         https://is.muni.cz/auth/el/1411/jaro2009/VLFA0621c/um/Practicals_in_Pharmacology_ENGL.pdf?fakulta=1411;obdobi=4504;kod=VLFA0621c

Teaching methods

Practicals, the teaching process of include theoretical setting up as well as practical training of knowledge and skills stated in Syllabus. Included are also individual work with specific pharmacological softwares and homeworks on the selected topics, presented and discussed afterward in class.

Assessment methods

The participation in practicals is obligatory and registered. To get a credits a student has to pass 3 written tests: a) on Latin terminology (assessed individually by the teacher), b) on drug prescription (assessed individually by the teacher), c) multiple-choice test on knowledge of topics taught (more than half correctly answered questions required).

 

VLFA0621p Pharmacology - lectures

Extent and Intensity

2/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: without completion

Course objectives

At the end of the course student should be able to understand integration in the field of biomedical sciences such as chemistry, physiology, molecular biology, pathology and pathological physiology clarifying mechanisms of xenobiotic (including drugs) effects and under which conditions they and their combinations may elicit therapeutic, adverse, and toxic effects, and what is the relation to the dose given, administration route, status of the organism (differences in pediatrics and geriatrics). They will be familiar with the requirements of "Good Clinical Practice" for development of new drugs, and duties of physicians in cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and principles of pharmacovigilance.

Syllabus

1st week, February, 28

The scope and historical development of modern pharmacology. Basic pharmacological terms, definitions. Physiological and pathological factors influencing drug effects. Adverse drug effects.

2nd week, March, 7

Drug Life-Cycle. Innovative and generic products. Biosimilars. Orphan drugs.

3rd week, March, 14

Drug delivery approaches, routes of administration, prolonged release preparations. The management of poisoning.

4th week, March, 21

Concentration-response relationship. Pharmacokinetic principles. Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Changes of drug effects after the repeated administration. Basic principles of Pharmacogenetics.

5th week, March, 28

Mechanisms of drug action, non-specific, specific. Receptors and ligand binding. Receptor subtypes, autoreceptors, heteroreceptors

6th week, April, 4

Drug interactions. Assessment of the seriousness of drug interactions.

7th week, April, 11

Drug therapy in children, general principles, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic peculiarities. Specificities of pharmacotherapy in the elderly.

8th week, April, 18

Pre-clinical and clinical drug development. Drug registration guidance. Regulation and guidelines for "Good Clinical Practice".

9th week,April, 25

Principles of pharmacovigilance, duties of physicians and pharmaceutical companies, general rules in drug promotion.

10th week, May, 2

Basic principles of pharmacoeconomics, types of pharmacoeconomic analyses and their relevant use in clinical practice

Literature

·         Základní a aplikovaná farmakologie. Edited by Dagmar Lincová - Hassan Farghali. 2., dopl. a přepr. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2007. xxiv, 672. ISBN 9788072633730. info

·         http://portal.med.muni.cz/clanek-461-farmakovigilance-a-propagace-leciv.html

·         http://portal.med.muni.cz/clanek-367-vyzkum-novych-leciv-od-zrodu-k-registraci.html

·         recommended literature

·         Rang & Dale's pharmacology 7th Edition:with student consult online access. Edited by H. P. Rang. : Churchill Livingstone, 2012.

·         DOSTÁLEK, Miroslav, Jan JUŘICA, Eva JANOŠTÍKOVÁ and Lucia ZAHRADNÍKOVÁ. Farmakokinetika (Pharmacokinetics). ČR: Grada, 2006. 220 pp. Farmacie a farmakologie. ISBN 80-247-1464-7. info

·         https://is.muni.cz/auth/el/1411/jaro2009/VLFA0621c/um/Practicals_in_Pharmacology_ENGL.pdf?fakulta=1411;obdobi=4504;kod=VLFA0621c

·         Farmakologie pro studenty zdravotnických oborů. Edited by Jiřina Martínková. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2007. 379 s. ISBN 978-80-247-1356-4. info

·         not specified

·         Ritter, James M. - Lewis, Lionel D. - Mant, Timothy G.K. - Ferro, Albert. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th Ed., Hodder Arnold, 2008. 465 s. ISBN 978-0-340-90046-8

·         Waller, Derek - Renwick, Andrew G. - Hillier, Keith. Medical pharmacology and therapeutics. 3rd ed. New York : Elsevier Saunders, 2009. ix, 744 p. ISBN 0-7020-2991-2.

·          

Teaching methods

According to schedule given students are expected to attend lectures read by habilitated pharmacology teacher.

Assessment methods

There is no testing of knowledge in this part of study as students are expected to continue pharmacological course in the subsequent semester.


VLIM051c Immunology - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 1 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The course is focused to clinical and laboratory aspects of immunology in medicine. After finishing this course the student will understand the pathogenesis of immunopathological diseases and obtain the basic knowledge that he/she will employ in diagnosis and treatment of the most common disturbances of the immune system. In the laboratory part the students will be introduced to the techniques used in immunological laboratory, both serological (agglutination, precipitation, immunofluorescence, ELISA, RIA) and cellular (flow cytometry, lymphocyte proliferation tests, neutophil function assessment) to allow him to interpret the most common laboratory immunology methods in medicine. In the clinical part the mechanisms leading to immunopathological diseases such as clinical manifestation of those diseases will be discussed to allow the students to apply their knowledge in clinical medicine. Also immunological problems associated with transplantation and malignancies will demonstrated.A selected articles dealing with immunological topics will be analysed and critically interpreted by the students.

Syllabus

·         Significance of the past history and of basic clinical and laboratory investigations for indication of immunological tests. Blood count. Serum proteins. Laboratory markers of inflammation. Blood collection. Diagnostic antisera.

·         Immunoglobulins and their biological functions. Monoclonal antibodies as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Interaction between antigen and antibody in vitro. Primary and secondary immunological interactions.

·         Serological reactions - overview. Specificity and sensitivity. Titration of serum. Direct and indirect agglutination. Precipitation. Double immune diffusion. Turbidimetry, nephelometry. Immunofluorescence tests. Enzyme analysis (ELISA). RIA. Blotting techniques. Circulating and localised immune complexes. Complement system evaluation

·         Major histocompatibility complex: structure, function. HLA typing. Molecular genetic in immunology.

·         Innate or natural immunity: phagocytosis, NK cells, cytotoxicity, interferon system, complement system, acute phase reaction, inflammation. Complement system evaluation.

·         Cells of the immune system CD nomenclature of leukocyte antigens. Phenotyping of lymphocytes. Flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation tests. Cytotoxicity. Evaluation of phagocytic cells.

·         Primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders. HIV disease.

·         Active and passive immunisation. Immunoglobulin therapy. Immunostimulation.

·         Autoimmunity and disease. Immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies and their laboratory detection. Clinically significant organ specific and organ non-specific autoantibodies.

·         Hypersensitivity reactions - anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immune complex, T-cell-mediated.

·         Clinical allergology. Allergic skin and exposition tests. Skin tests for early hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity tests. Anergy. Prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Anaphylactic shock.

·         Transfusion immunology. ABO system. Rh system. Transfusion reactions. Immunology of organ and bone marrow transplantation. Graft vs. host reaction

·         Tumor immunology. Tumor antigens. Immune response to tumors. Immunodiagnosis of tumors. Immune-related malignancies. Paraproteins, detection, clinical significancy. Electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis, immunofixation. Immunophenotyping of leukemia. Clinical significance of paraproteinemia

Literature

·         LITZMAN, Jiří, Tomáš FREIBERGER, Vlastimil KRÁL and Vojtěch THON. Základy vyšetření v klinické imunologii (Investigations in clinical immunology). 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2007. 59 pp. ISBN 978-80-210-4227-8. info

·         HOŘEJŠÍ, Václav and Jiřina BARTŮŇKOVÁ. Základy imunologie. 3. vyd. Praha: Triton, 2005. 279 s. ISBN 80-7254-686-4. info

Teaching methods

The course is given in a form of seminars and demonstration of laboratory methods. A home reading of selected articles to prepare their presentation, discussion and critical assessment is also included.

Assessment methods

To get the credit, presence in 90% of seminars with active participation in discussions is required. The knowledge is. continuously checked by oral questions.


VLIM051p Immunology - lecture

Extent and Intensity

1/0/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

The course covers basic aspects of the structure and function of the immune system in humans. Topics include mechanisms of non- specific immunity with main emphasis on the inflammatory process, such as humoral and cellular branches of the specific immune response. It includes mainly mechanisms of activation of the immune response and its regulation. Special emphasis is given to immune response to microbes and immunoprophylaxis to infectious and non-infectious diseases. After finishing the course the students will understand and be able to explain the mechanisms of the immune response in physiology, such as immune system disturbances leading to immunopathological diseases.

Syllabus

·         Immunology in medicine. Medical subject allergology and clinical immunology. Physiology and pathology of the immune system.

·         Immunological concept of “own”, “foreign”, “dangerous”.

·         Anatomy and cellular elements of the immune system.

·         Innate or natural immunity: phagocytosis, NK cells, cytotoxicity, interferon system, complement system, acute phase reaction, inflammation.

·         B lymphocytes and immunoglobulins.Genetic basis of immunoglobulin heterogeneity.Biological properties of antibodies.

·         T-lymphocytes, their development and effector functions. Polarisation of T-lymphocytes (T1, T2, Th17). Cytotoxicity. Cytokines. Major histocompatibility complex: structure, function.

·         Activation of T and B cells by antigen.Interactions between antigen-presenting cells and T- and B-lymphocytes.

·         Regulation of the immune reaction.

·         Compartmentalization of the immune response. Mucosal immunity.

·         Immunity against infectious agents. Microbial antigens.

·         Active and passive immunisation.

·         Age factor and immune system in humans

Literature

·         HOŘEJŠÍ, Václav and Jiřina BARTŮŇKOVÁ. Základy imunologie. 3. vyd. Praha: Triton, 2005. 279 s. ISBN 80-7254-686-4. info

·         BUC, Milan. Imunológia. 1. vyd. Bratislava: VEDA vydavateľstvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, 2001. 463 s. ISBN 80-224-0667-8. info

·         Abbas, Abul - Lichtman, Andrew. Basic Immunology. Philadelphia, Saunders, 336 s, ISBN: 1416029745

·         Doan, Thao - Melvold, Roger - WEaltenbaugh, Carl. Concise Medical Immunology. Philadelphia: LWW. 2005. 267s. ISBN: 0-7817-7541-X

Teaching methods

The subject is given in a form of lectures

Assessment methods

Subject is finished by an oral exam which is composed of two questions. One of them is from the subject of a theoretical immunology, the second one from the patophysiogy of the immune system. A credit from the subject VLIM051c is required for the exam.

 

VLKM0611c Communication and Selfexperience - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: k (colloquium).

Course objectives

Main objectives can be summarized as follows: basic communication skills - work with empathy, selfreflexion an trust in medical field and basic selfexploration - work with emotions and individual and group work within study groups in model situations.

Syllabus

·         Communication - definition, information, rules. Theoretical principals of communication, transactional analysis, Rogers approach. Basic communication skills - listening, empathy, respect, interest, support, interpretation. Non-verbal communication - - senses, proxemic patterns, haptic patterns, postural patterns, movements, gestures. Verbal communication skills - dialogue, kinds of questions, sharing emotions.Structured doctor - patient dialogue I., II.- psychotherapeutic approach.Motivation, compliance, therapeutical relationship.Communication during mental crisis. Communication with pediatric patient. Psychological approaches to various groups of patients - anxiety, fear, uncertainty, hostility, depression, mental illness. Communication with sense disorders patients.Communication with geriatric patients. Communicaton with oncology patients. Breaking bad news, communication with relatives.Relaxation techniques - Autogenous training, assertiveness techniques, burn out synrome prevention, Balint groups.

Teaching methods

There are used group activities and iniviual work as well during the course. Crucial is selfexploration. Stuents will learn relaxation techniques. Audio and video material is used during lessons.

Assessment methods

The subject is ended by colloquium - final project, attendance, test and final discussion is required.

 


VLLM0522c Medical Microbiology II - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/3/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

Subject follows first (methodological) part of practical education of microbiology (VLLM0421c).
After the course, the students are supposed to understand basics of diagnostic medical bacteriology, mycology and parasitology (virology was allready done in the 1st part).
Namely the student are supposed to understand basic diagnostic approaches for
* G+ bacteria: staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, coryneforms, listeriae, bacilli
* G- bacteria: enterobacteriae, vibria, aeromonads, campylobacters, helicobacters, pseudomonads, other G- non-fermenters, haemophili, pasteurellae, neisseriae, moraxellae, basically also legionellae, brucellae, bordetellae and francisellae
* anaerobic bacteria: clostridia and spore non-forming anaerobes
* acid fast and partially acid fast bacteria: Mycobacterium, Actinomyces, Nocardia
* spiral bacteria: genera Borrelia, Treponema and Leptospira
* basic medically important yeasts, dermatophytes and other micromycetes
* basic medically imprortant protozoa, roundworms, flukes, tapeworms and arthropods

They should also have a basic survey in
* problematics of biofilm detection (including testing of effectivity of antibiotics to biofilm)
* basic processi of clinical microbiology (indication, sampling, material transport, specimen processing, result releasing, result interpretation)

Those interested in deeper knowledge in antibiotic problematic and clinical microbiology may later register to the subject VSAT081 (Basics of antimicrobial therapy)

Syllabus

·         Curriculum of lessons in Medical Microbiology II (3rd year, autumn term)

·          

·         Practical lessons

·         P01 Diagnostics of staphylococci

·         P02 Diagnostics of streptococci

·         P03 Diagnostics of other G+ bacteria

·         P04 Diagnostics of enterobacteriaceae

·         P05 Diagnostics of G- bacteria II

·         P06 Diagnostics of G- bacteria III

·         P07 Diagnostics of anaerobic bacteria

·         P08 Diagnostics of acid-fast bacteria

·         P09 Diagnostics of spiral bacteria

·         P10 Diagnostics of fungi

·         P11 Diagnostics of parasites

·         P12 Introduction to biofilm problematic in bacteriological diagnostics

·         P13 Clinical microbiology I

·         P14 Clinical microbiology II

·         P14 Biofilm in Medical Microbiology

·         Teacher informs students about eventual imparities

Literature

recommended literature

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie obecná. (General Medical Microbiology.). 1. vyd. Brno: Neptun, 2001. 247 pp. ISBN 80-902896-2-2. info

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie speciální (Medical microbiology special). 1. vyd. Brno: NEPTUN, Březová 18, 637 00 Brno, 2003. 495 pp. ISBN 80-902896-6-5. info

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav, Vlastimil OBDRŽÁLEK, Petr ONDROVČÍK, Filip RŮŽIČKA, Ondřej ZAHRADNÍČEK and Vladana WOZNICOVÁ. Lékařská mikrobiologie II. Přehled vyšetřovacích metod v lékařské mikrobiologii (Medical Microbiology II. Survey of Diagnostic Methods in Medical Microbiology). 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Lékařská fakulta, 2000. 309 pp. ISBN 80-210-2272-8. info

·         GREENWOOD, David. Lékařská mikrobiologie : přehled infekčních onemocnění : patogeneze, imunita, laboratorní diagnostika a epidemiologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada Publishing, 1999. 686 s. ISBN 80-7169-365-0. info

not specified

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav and Petr ONDROVČÍK. Vybrané kapitoly z klinické mikrobiologie (Selected chapters from clinical microbiology). 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova universita, 1998. 90 pp. ISBN 80-210-1805-4. info

·         BEDNÁŘ, Marek. Lékařská mikrobiologie : bakteriologie, virologie, parazitologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Marvil, 1996. 558 s. info

·         Medical microbiology : A guide to microbial infections: Pathogenesis, immunity, laboratory diagnosis and control. Edited by David Greenwood - Richard C. B. Slack - John F. Peutherer - Barer M. 17th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2007. 738 s. ISBN 978-0-443-10209-7. info

·         MURRAY, Patrick R., Ken S. ROSENTHAL and George S., et al. KOBAYASHI. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002. 826 s. ISBN 0-323-01213-2. info

·         Medical microbiology. Edited by Cedric A. Mims. updated 3rd edition. Edinburgh: Elsevier, 2004. ix, 660 s. ISBN 0-323-03575-2. info

·         Pro české studium je základní Lék. mikrobiologie obecná a L. m. speciální (plus protokoly a výukové materiály na IS MU). Ostatní jsou doplňkové. For English study, Greenwood book is basic (+ protocols and educ. materials on IS), other are supplementary.

Teaching methods

practical training
self-study with e-learning materiasls

Assessment methods

Conditions for credits:
(1) absolving all practicals, with following notes:
- two justified absences or absences approved by teacher are allowed; students are obliged to show that they completed the knowledge (in laboratory reports and in their heads)
- more absences than two require a substitution
- not justified absences are not allowed (EXTRA PAYMENT IS REQUIRED FOR EVENTUAL SUBSTITUTION!!!)
(2) complete laboratory report (signature of teacher is not necessary)
(3) succesfully written credit test, eventually more tests; date of all tests will be declared in time.


VLLM0522p Medical Microbiology II - lecture

Extent and Intensity

1/0/0. 4 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

At the end of this course, student will be able
* to understand importance of individual bacterial findings in different clinical materials
* to understand the difference between common microbial flora, transient findings, contamination and pathogens in different localisations
* to undestand what infections are rather rare and what infections use to be common
* to know basic approaches of diagnostics and treatment of the most typical microbial diseases; nevertheless, here only basis can be given, and more detailed knowledge should be given in clinical subjects, especially Infectology

Namely, studets shlould know common microflora (if present)/transient findings/common contaminants/pathogens of
* different parts of upper and lower respiratory ways, lungs and middle ear
* different parts of gastrointestinal tract, liver, bile bladder and pancreas
* different parts of urinary tract
* different parts of genital system
* different parts of central and peripherial nervous system
* bloodstream, bones, muscles and various tissues
* skin, eyes, external ear

They should also know specific problems of microbial infections
* during pregnancy, during birth and in first days after bith
* of in-patients, especially immunocompromised (hospital infections)

Syllabus

·         1. Agents of respiratory infections I

·         2. Agents of respiratory infections II

·         3. Agents of digestive infections I

·         4. Agents of digestive infections II

·         5. Agents of neuroinfections

·         6. Agents of UTI

·         7. Agents of classical venereal diseases

·         8. Agents of other STDs

·         9. Agents of wound infections

·         10. Agents of skin infekctions

·         11. Agents of septicaemiae I

·         12. Agents of septicaemiae II

·         13. Agents of congenital and neonatal infections

·         14. Agents of nosocomial infections

Literature

recommended literature

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie obecná. (General Medical Microbiology.). 1. vyd. Brno: Neptun, 2001. 247 pp. ISBN 80-902896-2-2. info

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie speciální (Medical microbiology special). 1. vyd. Brno: NEPTUN, Březová 18, 637 00 Brno, 2003. 495 pp. ISBN 80-902896-6-5. info

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav, Vlastimil OBDRŽÁLEK, Petr ONDROVČÍK, Filip RŮŽIČKA, Ondřej ZAHRADNÍČEK and Vladana WOZNICOVÁ. Lékařská mikrobiologie II. Přehled vyšetřovacích metod v lékařské mikrobiologii (Medical Microbiology II. Survey of Diagnostic Methods in Medical Microbiology). 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Lékařská fakulta, 2000. 309 pp. ISBN 80-210-2272-8. info

not specified

·         VOTAVA, Miroslav and Petr ONDROVČÍK. Vybrané kapitoly z klinické mikrobiologie (Selected chapters from clinical microbiology). 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova universita, 1998. 90 pp. ISBN 80-210-1805-4. info

·         GREENWOOD, David. Lékařská mikrobiologie : přehled infekčních onemocnění : patogeneze, imunita, laboratorní diagnostika a epidemiologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada Publishing, 1999. 686 s. ISBN 80-7169-365-0. info

·         BEDNÁŘ, Marek. Lékařská mikrobiologie : bakteriologie, virologie, parazitologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Marvil, 1996. 558 s. info

·         Medical microbiology : A guide to microbial infections: Pathogenesis, immunity, laboratory diagnosis and control. Edited by David Greenwood - Richard C. B. Slack - John F. Peutherer - Barer M. 17th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2007. 738 s. ISBN 978-0-443-10209-7. info

·         MURRAY, Patrick R., Ken S. ROSENTHAL and George S., et al. KOBAYASHI. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002. 826 s. ISBN 0-323-01213-2. info

·         Medical microbiology. Edited by Cedric A. Mims. updated 3rd edition. Edinburgh: Elsevier, 2004. ix, 660 s. ISBN 0-323-03575-2. info

·         Pro české studium je základní Lék. mikrobiologie obecná a L. m. speciální (plus protokoly a výukové materiály na IS MU). Ostatní jsou doplňkové. For English study, Greenwood book is basic (+ protocols and educ. materials on IS), other are supplementary.

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

Attendance at lectures is not checked, but is recommended.
Subject is finished by practical examination, written admission test and oral theoretical examination. In case of failure at any part of the examination the student fails at the attempt.
Practical examination means doing a task picked by a student, or given him by a teacher. Student not succesfull at the practical examination does not continue to the theoretical examination. If student comes for 2nd/3rd attempt, and in one of previous attempt he got "A" or "B" from practical, he/she goes directly to theoretical part. This is not valid for students coming again for regular exam session in a repeatedly registered subject.
In theoretical part, student has to subdue written admission test (approx. 20 to 30 questions). After sucesfull absolution, student picks one triplet of theoretic questions. There are about 150 questions (may be changed). In case of succesfull test and not sucessfull oral examination, at a next attempt (in frame of one registration of the subject) the written test is not performed again.


VSIP0521c Clinical introdution to internal medicine I - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

After the completion of practicals the student will be able to take a complete history of patients perform a general objektive physical examination of patients perform and evaluace ecg curve and dicern basic patohological ecg findings describe physiological findings on X ray picture known laboratory and othe diagnostic tests in individual diseases

Syllabus

·         6. - 15. week: The study will be organized in classes in the Medical Clinics. The programm will be consisted from 2 hours bedside medical practice focused on clinical examination from 1. - 5. week and different special topic according the schedule. Special topics: focused on clinical examination from 1. - 5. week and different special topic according the schedule.

·         6th week - General history

·         7th week - Special history according to lung diseases

·         8th week - Special history according to heart diseases

·         9th week - Special history according to renal diseases

·         10th week - Special history according to gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases

·         11th week - Special history according to endocrine diseases

·         12th week - Special history according to hematological diseases

·         13th week - Special history according to peripheral arteries and veins diseases

·         14th week - Special history according to rheumatic and immunological diseases

·         15th week - Review of special histories, credit

Literature

·         Chrobák, Ladislav. Propedeutika vnitřního lékařství a. Illustrated by Josef Bavor. 1. vyd. Praha : Grada Publishing, 1997. 195 s. ISBN 80-7169-274-3

·         Zelenková, Jana. Příručka interní propedeutiky. 1.vydání. : Triton, 2002. 173 s. ISBN 80-7254-227-3.

·         Davidson s Principles and Practise of Medicine. 20th Edition. N.A. Boon, N.R.Colledge, B.R.Walker

Teaching methods

The practicals are taking place in various clinical departments, the attendance is obligatory. In first 5 weeks are lectures, since 6th week are lessons in clinical departments. The education is aimed at practical exercise of skills at patients bed. The konowledge of theory acquired during the lectures in first 5 weeks are requested. Audiovisual techniques are used for easier orientation in more complicated diagnostic situations.

Assessment methods

The credit is given for an aktive approach to the discussed probléme and on the basis of proved ability to examene the patient


VSIP0521p Clinical Introduction to Internal Medicine I - lecture

Extent and Intensity

1/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: without completion

Course objectives

After the completion of practicals the student will be able to take a complete history of patients perform a general objektive physical examination of patients perform and evaluace ecg curve and dicern basic patohological ecg findings describe physiological findings on X ray picture known laboratory and othe diagnostic tests in individual diseases

Syllabus

·         1st week: History, subjective and objective symptoms

·         2nd week: Examination of head and neck

·         3rd week: Examination of and lungs

·         4th week: Examination of heart

·         5th week: Examination of abdomen

Literature

·         Špinar J. a kol. Propedeutika a vyšetřovací metody vnitřních nemocí. Praha. Grada 2008,ISBN: 978-80-247-1749-4

·         Davidson s Principles and Practise of Medicine. 20th Edition. N.A. Boon, N.R.Colledge, B.R.Walker

·         ZELENKOVÁ, Jana. Příručka interní propedeutiky. 1.vydání. : Triton, 2002. 173 pp. ISBN 80-7254-227-3. info

·         Propedeutika vnitřního lékařství. Edited by Ladislav Chrobák, Illustrated by Josef Bavor. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 1997. 195 s. ISBN 80-7169-274-3. info

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

This lecture is not credited, it is a part of continual preparation for state final examination in surgery at the end of the education.


 

VSIP0622c Clinical Introduction to Internal Medicine II - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

After the completion of practicals the student will be able to take a complete history of patients perform a general objektive physical examination of patients perform and evaluace ecg curve and dicern basic patohological ecg findings describe physiological findings on X ray picture known laboratory and othe diagnostic tests in individual diseases

Syllabus

·         1st week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the cardiovascular diseases.

·         2nd week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the respiratory diaseases.

·         3rd week.

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the kidney and urinary tract diseases

·         4th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the gastrointestinal tract diseases

·         5th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the pancreatic, liver and biliary tract diseases.

·         6th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the endocrine diseases.

·         7th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the blood disorders

·         8th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the peripheral vascular diseases.

·         9th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the inflamatory joint diseases.

·         10th week

·         Laboratoty diagnostic test and clinical examination of the immunology alterations. 11th week

·         Normal ECG and chest X-ray 12th week

·         The ECG in acute myocardial infarction

·         13th week

·         The ECG in tachy-, bradyarrhytmia

·         14th week

·         The ECG in ventricular hypertrophy, bundle branch block, electrolyte dysbalance.

·         15th week

·         Review,credit

Literature

·         Chrobák, Ladislav. Propedeutika vnitřního lékařství a. Illustrated by Josef Bavor. 1. vyd. Praha : Grada Publishing, 1997. 195 s. ISBN 80-7169-274-3.

·         Zelenková, Jana. Příručka interní propedeutiky. 1.vydání. : Triton, 2002. 173 s. ISBN 80-7254-227-3.

·         doporučená literatura viz: VSIP0622p

·         Davidson s Principles and Practise of Medicine. 20th Edition. N.A. Boon, N.R.Colledge, B.R.Walker

Teaching methods

The practicals are taking place in various clinical departments, the attendance is obligatory. The education in 5-6 person group is uder way at bed-side.

Assessment methods

The education is aimed at practical exercise of skills at patient s bed. The konowledge of theory acquired dutiny the lectures in first 5 weeks are requested. Audiovisual techniques are used for easier orientation in more complicated diagnostic situations.The credit is given for an aktive approach to the discussed probléme and on the basis of proved ability to examene the patient. The final evaluation has 2 parts: oral and practical


VSIP0622p Clinical Introduction to Internal Medicine II - lecture

Extent and Intensity

1/0/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

After the completion of practicals the student will be able to take a complete history of patients perform a general objektive physical examination of patients perform and evaluace ecg curve and dicern basic patohological ecg findings describe physiological findings on X ray picture known laboratory and othe diagnostic tests in individual diseases

Syllabus

Literature

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

The oral and practical exam in the end of the course.

VSPA0521c Pathology I - practicals

Extent and Intensity

3/4/0. 6 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The main stress in the pathology course is given on macroscopic and microscopic correlation of diseases. After finishing the course the student should be able to: understand the basic pathologic processes (regressive changes, inflammaton, oncology, immune disorders); understand and be able to apply the basic classification of oncologic processes; understand the basic classification of etiologically defined processes (esp. infectious diseases); learn the most important methods used in diagnostic process and research (tissue processing, special stainings, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular pathology); understand various disorders with respect to individual organs and organ systems; get familiar with the process of autopsy (the process of the autopsy and its evaluation); get familiar with laboratory processing of the tissue samples (description, tissue sampling);

Syllabus

·         General Pathology

·         Pathology and its role in medicine.

·         Methodology: autopsy, clinico-pathological correlation, surgical pathology (biopsy), ways of tissue examination and fixation

·         Cytology.

·         The disease, its definition and course. External and internal causes of a disease. Prevention.

·         Death (clinical and biological). Signs of death.

·         Regressive changes, necrosis (classification, causes). Atrophy: numeric and simple. Dystrophy: metabolic disorders of proteins, glycids, fat, water, minerals and pigments.

·         Inflammation: definition, local and general sings, microscopic and macroscopic. Inflammation: classification, nomenclature. Immunity disorders, transplantation pathology.

·         Progressive changes. Regeneration, reparation, wound healing. Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. Pseudotumors: cysts, pseudocysts, inflammatory pseudotumor. Disorders of embryonal development.

·         Tumors: definition, general properties, etiology, precanceroses. Biology of tumors: benign, malignant and uncertain tumors. Systematic classification of tumors: epithelial, mesenchymal, neuroectodermal and germinal tumors, choriocarcinoma, mesothelioma.

·         Organ pathology

·         Disorders of the heart, circulation of the blood and lymph: Congenital and acquired heart diseases, changes in size and shape of the heart. Pathological contents of the pericardium. Inflammation, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction. Circulatory failure. Hypertension. Disorders of arteries and veins: atherosclerosis, aneurysm, inflammation, anemia, polycytemia. Local circulatory disorders: thrombosis, embolism. Bleeding. Lymfadenitis. Tumors.

·         Respiratory disorders: Pathology of upper respiratory pathways: rhinitis, laryngitis, bronchitis. Tumors and pseudotumors. Changes in pulmonary ventilation and circulation (venostasis, edema, induration, infarction, embolism). Silicosis and other external pigmentations. Superficial, interstitial and chronic inflammations of the lung. Pulmonary tumors. Pathology of the pleura.

·         Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: Pathology of the oral cavity, pharynx, tonsillae and esophagus. Gastiris, peptic ulcers, gastric tumors. Pathology of the gut: disorders of circulation, inflammation. Appendicitis, malabsorption syndrome. Ileus, herniation. Intestinal tumors. Inflammation of the peritoneum, pathological contents of peritoneal cavity.

Literature

·         POVÝŠIL, Ctibor and Ivo ŠTEINER. Speciální patologie. 2. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7262-494-2. info

·         Obecná patologie. Edited by Jirka Mačák. 1. vyd. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2002. 189 s., ob. ISBN 80-244-0436-2. info

·         MAČÁK, Jirka and Jana MAČÁKOVÁ. Patologie (Pathology). první. Praha: GRADA, 2004. 347 pp. ISBN 80-247-0785-3. info

·         BUČEK, Jan. Praktikum z patologie :pitevní cvičení. 4. přepr. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. 88 s. ISBN 80-210-0721-4. info

·         FEIT, Josef, P. MIŘEJOVSKÝ and I. STEINER. Kontrolní otázky z patologie (Test question in pathology). 1. vyd. Praha: Triton, 1998. ISBN 80-85875-89-6. info

Teaching methods

Pathology course consists of lectures and practical classes. Teaching consists of theoretical part (lectures) and practical part (laboratory practice). Practical courses consist of histological practice (microscopical and macroscopical images of autoptical and bioptical specimens are demonstrated and discussed) and autoptical practice (presence and ev. participation in autopsies). Hypertext teaching materials for the students are available in our teaching rooms as well in the Internet. These materials contain about 3000 images of various imaging methods (macroscopic, x-ray, CT, MRI images, histological images, partially available as virtual slides, videos). Lectures and practicals are complementary. General information and new updates on classifications as well as images are presented at the lectures. Practicals add further information, histopathologicaly and autoptical experience. Further information is provided in our web-based teaching materials. Various forms of testing is used to give the students proper feedback. Students are supposed to prepare for each practical lesson. The topic for each practical lesson as well as for each lecture is available.

Assessment methods

Lectures: 3 hours/week Practical classes: 4 hours/week; microscopic and autoptic lessons. The course of pathology is closed by oral exam. Attendance is compulsory; knowledge of the students is periodically tested during the practical classes. Testing can be either oral or written (multichoice tests, essay). Exam after two semesters of pathology has two parts: practical and theoretical. Practical part of the exam takes the form of a discussion over the microscop or over macroscopical or microscopical images. In theoretical part of the exam the students discuss after short preparation randomly selected topics. The list of these topics is available to the students in advance.

, Autumn 2008, Autumn 2009, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2012, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2014.


VSPA0521p Pathology I - lecture

Extent and Intensity

3/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: without completion

Course objectives

The main stress in the pathology course is given on macroscopic and microscopic correlation of diseases. After finishing the course the student should be able to: understand the basic pathologic processes (regressive changes, inflammaton, oncology, immune disorders); understand and be able to apply the basic classification of oncologic processes; understand the basic classification of etiologically defined processes (esp. infectious diseases); learn the most important methods used in diagnostic process and research (tissue processing, special stainings, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular pathology); understand various disorders with respect to individual organs and organ systems; get familiar with the process of autopsy (the process of the autopsy and its evaluation); get familiar with laboratory processing of the tissue samples (description, tissue sampling);

Syllabus

Literature

Teaching methods

The course of pathology combines lectures (3 hours/week) and practical classes (4 hours/week, consisting of histological and autoptic lessons). Lectures are common for students of both pathology departments of Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, and are proportionally performed by lecturers of these institutions. Topics of the lectures correspond with the recommended literature and the information obtained during the lectures represents an integral part of the recommended study materials/literature and is required at the exam. The schedule of the lectures (including lecturers) is released by each pathology department before the beginning of each semester and students will be informed during the practical classes at the beginning of each term as well. Theoretical basis of each learning unit is presented during the practical classes (in a continuity with lectures) using an audio-visual technique. Histopathological findings of autoptical and bioptical samples are presented using the slides (including virtual/digitized ones). Students are expected to describe histopathological findings in a set of selected lesions. The list of required slides will be published before the beginning of a summer semester. Hypertext teaching materials are also used and are available in lecture rooms of the Department of Pathology (University Hospital Brno) and for all students for the individual work on website (www.muni.cz/atlases). During the winter semester, students will take part in at least 2 commented demonstration autopsies performed by a teacher in a demonstration autopsy room. The student will learn the basis of the autopsy technique and later during the semester actively participate in an autopsy of all organ systems. The autopsy classes are finished by macroscopic description of all organ systems and summary of autopsy findings. These classes can be replaced by a demonstration of autopsy findings from the database of the particular pathology department and by the excursion to the bioptical laboratories to obtain the information about basic principles of the laboratory work in pathology departments including the techniques of gross sampling.

Assessment methods

This lecture is not credited, it is a part of continual preparation for state final examination in surgery at the end of the education.

VSPA0622c Pathology II - practice

Extent and Intensity

3/4/0. 4 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The main stress in the pathology course is given on macroscopic and microscopic correlation of diseases. After finishing the course the student should be able to: understand the basic pathologic processes (regressive changes, inflammaton, oncology, immune disorders); understand and be able to apply the basic classification of oncologic processes; understand the basic classification of etiologically defined processes (esp. infectious diseases); learn the most important methods used in diagnostic process and research (tissue processing, special stainings, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular pathology); understand various disorders with respect to individual organs and organ systems; get familiar with the process of autopsy (the process of the autopsy and its evaluation); get familiar with laboratory processing of the tissue samples (description, tissue sampling);

Syllabus

·         Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), cirrhosis, tumors. Pathology of the gall bladder and biliary duct (stones, inflammations, tumors). Icterus. Pancreas: pancreatitis, diabetes, tumors.

·         Pathology of the urinary system: Kidney stones, inflammation (glomerulonephiris, pyelonephritis), nephrosis. Uremia. Tumors of the kidney, ureter and urinary bladder. Pathology of the male genital system (inflammation, tumors). Pathology of the female genital system (developmental disorders, inflammation, tumors). Pathology of pregnancy. Pathology of the breast.

·         Pathology of the central and peripheral nervous system: trauma, bleeding, vascular disorders. Leptomeningitis, hydrocephalus, brain edema. Tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. Patology of the eye: trauma, inflammation, tumors.

·         Pathology of the endocrine system: thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenal glands, hypophysis, endocrine panreas.

·         Patology of the skin: inflammation, tumors and pseudotumors.

·         Prenatal and neonatal pathology, pathology of childs age.

·         Pathology of the bone, striated muscle and soft tissues.

Literature

·         POVÝŠIL, Ctibor and Ivo ŠTEINER. Speciální patologie. 2. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7262-494-2. info

·         Obecná patologie. Edited by Jirka Mačák. 1. vyd. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci, 2002. 189 s., ob. ISBN 80-244-0436-2. info

·         MAČÁK, Jirka and Jana MAČÁKOVÁ. Patologie (Pathology). první. Praha: GRADA, 2004. 347 pp. ISBN 80-247-0785-3. info

·         BUČEK, Jan. Praktikum z patologie :pitevní cvičení. 4. přepr. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. 88 s. ISBN 80-210-0721-4. info

·         FEIT, Josef, P. MIŘEJOVSKÝ and I. STEINER. Kontrolní otázky z patologie (Test question in pathology). 1. vyd. Praha: Triton, 1998. ISBN 80-85875-89-6. info

Teaching methods

Pathology course consists of lectures and practical classes. Teaching consists of theoretical part (lectures) and practical part (laboratory practice). Practical courses consist of histological practice (microscopical and macroscopical images of autoptical and bioptical specimens are demonstrated and discussed) and autoptical practice (presence and ev. participation in autopsies). Hypertext teaching materials for the students are available in our teaching rooms as well in the Internet. These materials contain about 3000 images of various imaging methods (macroscopic, x-ray, CT, MRI images, histological images, partially available as virtual slides, videos). Lectures and practicals are complementary. General information and new updates on classifications as well as images are presented at the lectures. Practicals add further information, histopathologicaly and autoptical experience. Further information is provided in our web-based teaching materials. Various forms of testing is used to give the students proper feedback. Students are supposed to prepare for each practical lesson. The topic for each practical lesson as well as for each lecture is available.

Assessment methods

Lectures: 3 hours/week Practical classes: 4 hours/week; microscopic and autoptic lessons. The course of pathology is closed by oral exam. Attendance is compulsory; knowledge of the students is periodically tested during the practical classes. Testing can be either oral or written (multichoice tests, essay). Exam after two semesters of pathology has two parts: practical and theoretical. Practical part of the exam takes the form of a discussion over the microscop or over macroscopical or microscopical images. In theoretical part of the exam the students discuss after short preparation randomly selected topics. The list of these topics is available to the students in advance.


VSPA0622p Pathology II - lecture

Extent and Intensity

3/4/0. 6 credit(s). Recommended Type of Completion: zk (examination). Alternate Types of Completion: RZk (examination).

Course objectives

The main stress in the pathology course is given on macroscopic and microscopic correlation of diseases. After finishing the course the student should be able to: understand the basic pathologic processes (regressive changes, inflammaton, oncology, immune disorders); understand and be able to apply the basic classification of oncologic processes; understand the basic classification of etiologically defined processes (esp. infectious diseases); learn the most important methods used in diagnostic process and research (tissue processing, special stainings, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular pathology); understand various disorders with respect to individual organs and organ systems; get familiar with the process of autopsy (the process of the autopsy and its evaluation); get familiar with laboratory processing of the tissue samples (description, tissue sampling);

Syllabus

·         Inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), cirrhosis, tumors. Pathology of the gall bladder and biliary duct (stones, inflammations, tumors). Icterus. Pancreas: pancreatitis, diabetes, tumors.

·         Pathology of the urinary system: Kidney stones, inflammation (glomerulonephiris, pyelonephritis), nephrosis. Uremia. Tumors of the kidney, ureter and urinary bladder. Pathology of the male genital system (inflammation, tumors). Pathology of the female genital system (developmental disorders, inflammation, tumors). Pathology of pregnancy. Pathology of the breast.

·         Pathology of the central and peripheral nervous system: trauma, bleeding, vascular disorders. Leptomeningitis, hydrocephalus, brain edema. Tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. Patology of the eye: trauma, inflammation, tumors.

·         Pathology of the endocrine system: thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenal glands, hypophysis, endocrine panreas.

·         Patology of the skin: inflammation, tumors and pseudotumors.

·         Prenatal and neonatal pathology, pathology of childs age.

·         Pathology of the bone, striated muscle and soft tissues.

Literature

·         POVÝŠIL, Ctibor and Ivo ŠTEINER. Speciální patologie. 2. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7262-494-2. info

·         MAČÁK, Jirka and Jana MAČÁKOVÁ. Patologie (Pathology). první. Praha: GRADA, 2004. 347 pp. ISBN 80-247-0785-3. info

·         BUČEK, Jan. Praktikum z patologie :pitevní cvičení. 4. přepr. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. 88 s. ISBN 80-210-0721-4. info

·         FEIT, Josef, P. MIŘEJOVSKÝ and I. STEINER. Kontrolní otázky z patologie (Test question in pathology). 1. vyd. Praha: Triton, 1998. ISBN 80-85875-89-6. info

Teaching methods

Pathology course consists of lectures and practical classes. Teaching consists of theoretical part (lectures) and practical part (laboratory practice). Practical courses consist of histological practice (microscopical and macroscopical images of autoptical and bioptical specimens are demonstrated and discussed) and autoptical practice (presence and ev. participation in autopsies). Hypertext teaching materials for the students are available in our teaching rooms as well in the Internet. These materials contain about 3000 images of various imaging methods (macroscopic, x-ray, CT, MRI images, histological images, partially available as virtual slides, videos). Lectures and practicals are complementary. General information and new updates on classifications as well as images are presented at the lectures. Practicals add further information, histopathologicaly and autoptical experience. Further information is provided in our web-based teaching materials. Various forms of testing is used to give the students proper feedback. Students are supposed to prepare for each practical lesson. The topic for each practical lesson as well as for each lecture is available.

Assessment methods

Lectures: 3 hours/week Practical classes: 4 hours/week; microscopic and autoptic lessons. The course of pathology is closed by oral exam. Attendance is compulsory; knowledge of the students is periodically tested during the practical classes. Testing can be either oral or written (multichoice tests, essay). Exam after two semesters of pathology has two parts: practical and theoretical. Practical part of the exam takes the form of a discussion over the microscop or over macroscopical or microscopical images. In theoretical part of the exam the students discuss after short preparation randomly selected topics. The list of these topics is available to the students in advance.


VSPF0521c Pathological Physiology I - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/3/0. 4 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The student will be trained for assuming these knowledge and skills:
Principles and ethics of experimental use of laboratory animals, basic surgical skills, general principles of work with lab. animals - explorative laparotomy
Pathophysiology of blood and bone marrow disorders, haematological findings in selected blood disorders
Statistical analysis of experiments (introduction)
Exp. induced acute radiation syndrome in lab. animal – haematological consequences
Essential hypertension, resting and ambulatory blood pressure (and heart rate) measurements, postural changes, effect of isometric and aerobic exercise
Pathophysiology of ventilation disorders and pulmonary gas exchange – spirometry and hyperoxic test
Secondary hypertension, exp. induced renal ischemia – quantification of renal rennin expression
Conductive disorders, demonstration of selected types of arrhythmias
ECG monitoring of exp. induced arrhythmias in lab. animal
Exp. induced acute renal insufficiency in lab. animal – measurement of GFR based on kinetics of renal inulin excretion
Exp. induced renal failure - peritoneal dialysis in lab. animal

Syllabus

·         22/9 23/9 Introduction, health & safety in the lab, principles and ethics of experimental use of laboratory animals, basic surgical skills, general principles of work with lab. animals & explorative laparotomy [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         22/9 23/9 Introduction, health & safety in the lab, principles and ethics of experimental use of laboratory animals, basic surgical skills, general principles of work with lab. animals & explorative laparotomy [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         29/9 30/9 Exp. induced acute radiation syndrome in lab. animal – haematological consequences (part 1) [dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD., dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         6/10 7/10 Statistical analysis of experiments (introduction) [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Michal Masařík, PhD.]

·         13/10 14/10 Exp. induced acute radiation syndrome in lab. animal – haematological consequences (part 2) [dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD., dr. Jan Máchal]

·         20/10 21/10 Essential hypertension (seminar), resting and ambulatory blood pressure (and heart rate) measurements, postural changes, effect of isometric and aerobic exercise [dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD., dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD.]

·         27/10 28/10 Conductive disorders (seminar), demonstration of selected types of arrhythmias / public holiday (28/10) [dr. Jan Máchal, dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         3/11 4/11 Principles and demonstration of peripheral blood flow examination using ultrasonography [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]

·         10/11 11/11 Secondary hypertension (seminar), exp. induced renal ischemia (part 1) [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         17/11 18/11 public holiday (17/11) / Conductive disorders (seminar), demonstration of selected types of arrhythmias [dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD., dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         24/11 25/11 Principles of ECG analysis, ECG monitoring of exp. induced arrhythmias in lab. animal [dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD., dr. Michal Masařík, PhD.]

·         1/12 2/12 Exp. induced renal ischemia – quantification of renal renin expression (part 2) [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD.]

·         8/12 9/12 Exp. induced acute renal insufficiency in lab. animal – measurement of GFR based on kinetics of renal inulin excretion [dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         15/12 16/12 Exp. induced renal failure - peritoneal dialysis in lab. animal [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, MA]

·         5/1 6/1 Pathophysiology of ventilation disorders and pulmonary gas exchange – spirometry, tests, credits [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD.]

·         29/9 30/9 Exp. induced acute radiation syndrome in lab. animal – haematological consequences (part 1) [dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD., dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         6/10 7/10 Statistical analysis of experiments (introduction) [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Michal Masařík, PhD.]

·         13/10 14/10 Exp. induced acute radiation syndrome in lab. animal – haematological consequences (part 2) [dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD., dr. Jan Máchal]

·         20/10 21/10 Essential hypertension (seminar), resting and ambulatory blood pressure (and heart rate) measurements, postural changes, effect of isometric and aerobic exercise [dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD., dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD.]

·         27/10 28/10 Conductive disorders (seminar), demonstration of selected types of arrhythmias / public holiday (28/10) [dr. Jan Máchal, dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         3/11 4/11 Principles and demonstration of peripheral blood flow examination using ultrasonography [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]

·         10/11 11/11 Secondary hypertension (seminar), exp. induced renal ischemia (part 1) [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         17/11 18/11 public holiday (17/11) / Conductive disorders (seminar), demonstration of selected types of arrhythmias [dr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD., dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD.]

·         24/11 25/11 Principles of ECG analysis, ECG monitoring of exp. induced arrhythmias in lab. animal [dr. Monika Goldbergová - Pávková, PhD., dr. Michal Masařík, PhD.]

·         1/12 2/12 Exp. induced renal ischemia – quantification of renal renin expression (part 2) [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD.]

·         8/12 9/12 Exp. induced acute renal insufficiency in lab. animal – measurement of GFR based on kinetics of renal inulin excretion [dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, PhD.]

·         15/12 16/12 Exp. induced renal failure - peritoneal dialysis in lab. animal [dr. Michal Masařík, PhD., Lukáš Pácal, MA]

·         5/1 6/1 Pathophysiology of ventilation disorders and pulmonary gas exchange – spirometry, tests, credits [dr. Michal Jurajda, PhD., dr. Julie Bienertová-Vašků, PhD.]

Literature

·         KAŇKOVÁ, Kateřina, Julie BIENERTOVÁ VAŠKŮ, Lydie IZAKOVIČOVÁ HOLLÁ, Michal JURAJDA, Michal MASAŘÍK, Lukáš PÁCAL and Anna VAŠKŮ. Pathophysiology practicals for General Medicine and Dental Medicine courses. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008. 46 pp. Portal of MU’s Faculty of Medicine [online]. ISSN 1801-6103. URL info

·         BIENERTOVÁ VAŠKŮ, Julie, Dana BUČKOVÁ, Lydie IZAKOVIČOVÁ HOLLÁ, Michal JURAJDA, Kateřina KAŇKOVÁ, Šárka KUCHTÍČKOVÁ, Lukáš PÁCAL, Anna VAŠKŮ and Vladimír ZNOJIL. Praktikum z patologické fyziologie. Elportál, Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2007. ISSN 1802-128X. URL info

·         VAŠKŮ, Anna a kol. Praktikum z patologické fyziologie. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2000. 59 pp. ISBN 80-210-2318-X. info

Teaching methods

practical exercises in labs, discussion to the given topics, video with comments

Assessment methods

Practicals are compulsory. The only permited reason for not attending is a student's sick leave. Student can - with tutor's approval - substitute the particular practical in a given week with another group in case he/she has a justifiable reason for it. Student's participation in the practicals throughout the term is certified by a credit. Students can be given written tests or individual home work by tutor's throughout the term. Students have to be wearing lab coats during the practicals.


VSPF0521p Pathological physiology - lectures

Extent and Intensity

2/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: without completion

Course objectives

The aim of the subject is to teach students to be able to answer a sufficient number of pathophysiologically asked questions "why", especially focused on these themes:
Pathological Physiology as a science. Disease, health, normality. Descriptivism contra normativism.
Physiology of genes, regulation of gene activity.
Monogenic and multigenic diseases.
Shock syndrome.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ionising radiation effects on cellular level.
Ionising radiation effects on tissue and organismal level.
Cardiovascular pathophysiology - systolic and diastolic function.
Cardiac failure.
Myocardial ischemia.
Hypertension.
Pathophysiology of the gas exchange in the lungs.
Pathophysiology of respiratory mechanics.
Chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease.
Restriction pulmonary diseases, respiratory failure.
Physiology of membrane transports.

Syllabus

·         Pathophysiology: an integrating medical speciality. Aetiology and pathogenesis of diseases.

·         Interaction of cells and intercellular communication, basic principles of intracellular signalling. Reaction of the cell on damage and hypoxia. Cell death. Cytokines network. Chemokines.

·         Inflammation. Acute phase reaction. Systemic reaction of organism on damage. Regeneration and reparation. Wound healing.

·         Pathophysiology of malignant transformation.

·         Hypertension. Remodelling of blood vessels. Diseases of peripheral blood vessels.

·         Metabolism of myocardium, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, myocardium infarction.

·         Pressure and volume overload of heart; systolic and diastolic dysfunction, heart remodelling, heart failure

·         Stress, general adaptation syndrome.

·         Pathophysiology of gas exchange and ventilation control in the lungs.

·         Lung diseases.

·         Pathophysiological aspects of renal functions. Kidney diseases

·         Acute and chronic renal failure.

·         Pathophysiology of water and electrolytes. Tonicity and volume disturbances.

·         Pathophysiological aspects of metabolism of calcium and phosphates, bone pathophysiology.

Literature

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

This lecture is not credited, it is a part of continual preparation for state final examination in surgery at the end of the education.

VSPF0622c Pathological Physiology II - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/3/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

The objective of the practical exercises and seminars from pathological physiology is to provide students basic idea about pathological states and experimental work. Students will also acquire practical skills necessary for their subsequent(future) study and work.

Syllabus

·         [1] Exp. induced changes in gastric juice secretion in lab. animal

·         [2] Exp. induced peptic ulcer in lab. animal

·         [3] Exp. induced icterus in lab. animal

·         [4] Pathophysiology of blood and bone marrow disorders (seminar), practical assessment of selected haemathological findings (light microscopy)

·         [5] Acid-base balance disorders (seminar)

·         [6] Exp. induced vein thrombosis in lab. animal

·         [7] Genetic susceptibility to disease – monogenic vs. complex disease (tutorial)

·         [8] Principles of DNA diagnostics – detection of I/D polymorphism in the ACE gene by PCR

·         [9] Overview of molecular biology exp. methods used in pathophysiology (demonstration of selected lab. methods)

·         [10] Use of enzyme (and other) markers in diagnostics of selected pathophysiological states – evaluation of LDH isoenzymes

·         [11] Exp. induced diabetes mellitus – diagnostic by oral glucose tolerance test

·         [12] Food intake disorders (tutorial) - practical demonstration of nutritional state assessment

·         [13] Skin barrier disorders (measurement of skin conductivity)

·         [14] Statistical evaluation of experiments (advanced methods), practical analysis of exp. data (application of stat. software) + tests, revision, credits

Literature

required literature

·         KAŇKOVÁ, Kateřina, Julie BIENERTOVÁ VAŠKŮ, Lydie IZAKOVIČOVÁ HOLLÁ, Michal JURAJDA, Michal MASAŘÍK, Lukáš PÁCAL and Anna VAŠKŮ. Pathophysiology practicals for General Medicine and Dental Medicine courses. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2008. 46 pp. Portal of MU’s Faculty of Medicine [online]. ISSN 1801-6103. URL info

not specified

·         BIENERTOVÁ VAŠKŮ, Julie, Dana BUČKOVÁ, Lydie IZAKOVIČOVÁ HOLLÁ, Michal JURAJDA, Kateřina KAŇKOVÁ, Šárka KUCHTÍČKOVÁ, Lukáš PÁCAL, Anna VAŠKŮ and Vladimír ZNOJIL. Praktikum z patologické fyziologie. Elportál, Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2007. ISSN 1802-128X. URL info

Teaching methods

practical exercize in lab, seminars

Assessment methods

P> Practicals are compulsory (the only permited reason for not attending is a student's sick leave). Students can be given written tests or individual home work by tutor's throughout the term. Student's participation in the practicals throughout the term is certified by a credit given upon the following conditions: (i) complete attendance, (ii) complete protocols from the exp. practicals, (iii) indicidual criteria announced by the principal tutor.


VSPF0622p Pathological Physiology II - lectures

Extent and Intensity

2/0/0. 5 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

The aim of the subject is to train general medicine students in dynamic thinking about etiology and pathogenesis of diseases focused on special pathophysiology as well as molecular pathophysiology themes:
Pathophysiology of cardiovascular system.
Pathophysiology of digestive system, nutrition deficits.
Pathophysiology of endocrine system, metabolic diseases.
Pathophysiology of hemopoietic system, neoplasias.
Rheumatic diseases. Immunologically conditioned diseases.
Pathophysiology of respiratory tract.
Pathofphysiology of kidneys, disturbances in metabolism of water and ions.
Pathophysiology of nervous system.
Pathophysiology of muscles and sensory organs.

Syllabus

·         Sylabus of Lectures

·         22. 2. 2011 Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal system

·         Prof. Kaňková

·         1. 3. 2011 Pathophysiology of liver and biliary tract

·         Prof. Kaňková

·         8. 3. 2011 Pathophysiology of blood forming tissue. Pathophysiology of blood clotting.

·         Prof. Vašků

·         15. 3. 2011 Pathophysiology of selected autoimmune disorders.

·         Prof. Izakovičová Hollá

·         22. 3. 2011 General pathophysiology of endocrine system. Stress.

·         Prof. Vašků

·         29. 3. 2011 DNA diagnostics in complex diseases. Basic principles of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

·         Prof. Vašků

·         5. 4. 2011 Special pathophysiology of endocrine system

·         Prof. Vašků

·         12. 4. 2011 Pathophysiology of allergic states.

·         Prof. Izakovičová Hollá

·         19. 4. 2011 Pathophysiology of bone and muscles

·         Prof. Vašků

·         26 .4. 2011 Pathophysiological aspects of sugar metabolism defects. Diabetes mellitus.

·         Prof. Kaňková

·         3. 5. 2011 Pathophysiological aspects of lipid metabolism defects

·         Prof. Vašků

·         10. 5. 2011 Pathophysiology of nutrition disorders

·         Prof. Kaňková

·         17. 5. 2011 Pathophysiology of nervous system: motoric system

·         Prof. Vašků

·         24. 5. 2011 Pathophysiology of nervous system: degenerative disorders

·         Prof. Vašků

Literature

·         NEČAS, Emanuel and A KOLEKTIV. Obecná patologická fyziologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2000. 377 pp. info

·         Patologická fyziologie orgánových systémů. Edited by Emanuel Nečas. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2003. S: 381-760. ISBN 80-246-0674-7. info

·         Patologická fyziologie orgánových systémů. Edited by Emanuel Nečas. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2003. 379 s. ISBN 80-246-0615-1. info

·         PORTH, Carol Mattson. Essentials of Pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states. 2007. vyd. United States of America: Williams and Wilkins, 2007. 1147 pp. 2nd edition. ISBN 0-7817-7087-4. info

Teaching methods

lecture

Assessment methods

Oral exam. The final exam is oral; student will answer 4 questions selected by lot from general, special pathophysiology, practicals and lectures. Individual evaluation from practicals (described by assistant) is taken into account.


VSSL051c Community Medicine - practice

Extent and Intensity

0/2/0. 1 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).

Course objectives

This course aims to equip students with the practical kknowledge of contents, mission and basic methods of social medicine as well as with the knowledge of measuring and evaluation of health condition of the population. By the end of this course students should be able to: define, calculate and interpret the basic indicators of the health condition of the population and use them for the evaluation of the health condition of the population; define and choose appropriate indicators of morbidity, calculate them and interpret the obtained results; propose and plan population study, formulate conclusions, assess health risks and propose suitable measures to improve the health of the population; on the basis of examples of identification and on the basis of dealing with health problems should have the basis of statistical and systemic thinking in medicine; the basis of methods of critical appraisal of population studies results and consequent organizational measures.

Syllabus

·         1. History of community medicine. Community medicine in Central Europe. Methodological, educational, moral, organizational and integrative role of social medicine.

·         2. Health and disease. Prevalence. Incidence, risk, rate, odds. Issues in calculating measures of disease frequency. Analysis of routinely collected data. Value and limitations of routinely collected data.

·         3. Death registration. Commonly used indices derived from mortality data. Summary statistics and standardisation. Direct standardisation. Health for All database.

·         4. Ratio measures. Estimating measures of effect for more than one level of exposure. Difference measures. Measures of effect versus measure of impact. Measures of population impact, population attributable risk, population attributable risk fraction.

·         5. Ecological study. Cross-sectional study. Cohort study. Case control study. Issues in design and execution. Design strategy: when to use which study.

·         6. Key steps in a randomised controlled trial. Size of the trial. Variants of the randomised controlled trial. Ethical issues. Analysis, interpretation and policy implications.

·         7. Types of variables. Distributions. Measures of central tendency. Measures of variability. Normal and log normal distributions.

·         8. Populations and samples. Confidence intervals. Sampling variability of proportions. Sampling variability of means. Hypothesis testing. Interpretation of p-values.

·         9. Correlation. Linear regression. Chi-squared test for a two-way table. Chi-squared test for trend. Validity of chi-squared tests. Epi-Info statistical package.

·         10. Bias, selection bias, measurement bias. Differential and non-differential misclassification. Confounding. Meta-analysis. Causality in medicine.

·         11. Validity of diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity. Repeatability. Predictive values of a test result.

·         12. Study designs for evaluation of screening. Selection bias, lead time bias, length bias, diagnosis bias. Criteria for a successful screening programme. Scope and levels of prevention.

·         13. Need, demand and use. Efficacy, effectiveness, efficiency. QALYs.

·         14. Health care systems. Funding mechanisms. Equity. Health care system in the Czech Republic. The health reform process.

·         15. Health policy for Europe. Health for All programme.

Literature

·         HOLČÍK, Jan, Adolf ŽÁČEK and Ilona KOUPILOVÁ. Sociální lékařství. 3. nezměn. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2006. 137 s. ISBN 80-210-3954-X. info

·         GERYLOVOVÁ, Anna and Jan HOLČÍK. Úvod do statistiky. Text pro semináře. 2. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2000. 31 pp. ISBN 80-210-2301-5. info

·         BONITA, R., R. BEAGLEHOLE and T. KJELLSTROM. Basic epidemiology. 2nd. Geneva: WHO, 2006. 213 pp. ISBN 9789241547079. info

·         KOUPILOVÁ, Ilona and Jan HOLČÍK. Community medicine: Practical Handbook. 2nd ed. Brno: Lékařská fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, 1996. 114 pp. ISBN 80-210-1391-5. info

·         První dva tituly jsou základní, ostatní doplňkové.

Teaching methods

seminar and class discussion

Assessment methods

credit


VSSL051p Community Medicine - lecture

Extent and Intensity

1/2/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).

Course objectives

This course aims to equip students with the theoretical knowledge of contents, mission and basic methods of social medicine as well as with the knowledge of measuring and evaluation of health condition of the population. By the end of this course students should be able to: define, calculate and interpret the basic indicators of the health condition of the population and use them for the evaluation of the health condition of the population; define and choose appropriate indicators of morbidity, calculate them and interpret the obtained results; propose and plan population study, formulate conclusions, assess health risks and propose suitable measures to improve the health of the population; on the basis of examples of identification and on the basis of dealing with health problems should have the basis of statistical and systemic thinking in medicine; the basis of methods of critical appraisal of population studies results and consequent organizational measures.

Syllabus

·         1. Community medicine in a historical perspective.

·         2. Measures of disease frequency.

·         3. Mortality statistics.

·         4. Comparing disease occurrence, population impact.

·         5. Observational studies.

·         6. Intervention studies.

·         7. Distributions and summary measures.

·         8. Estimation and testing.

·         9. Measures of association.

·         10. Interpretation of epidemiological studies.

·         11. Diagnostic tests.

·         12. Screening.

·         13. Health care planning and evaluation.

·         14. Health care systems.

·         15. Current issues in health policy.

Literature

·         HOLČÍK, Jan, Adolf ŽÁČEK and Ilona KOUPILOVÁ. Sociální lékařství. 3. nezměn. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2006. 137 s. ISBN 80-210-3954-X. info

·         GERYLOVOVÁ, Anna and Jan HOLČÍK. Úvod do statistiky. Text pro semináře. 2. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2000. 31 pp. ISBN 80-210-2301-5. info

·         BONITA, R., R. BEAGLEHOLE and T. KJELLSTROM. Basic epidemiology. 2nd. Geneva: WHO, 2006. 213 pp. ISBN 9789241547079. info

·         KOUPILOVÁ, Ilona and Jan HOLČÍK. Community medicine: Practical Handbook. 2nd ed. Brno: Lékařská fakulta Masarykovy univerzity, 1996. 114 pp. ISBN 80-210-1391-5. info

·         První dva tituly jsou základní, ostatní doplňkové.

Teaching methods

lectures

Assessment methods

oral exam