Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Novel URAT1 Dysfunctional Variant in a Pediatric Patient with Renal Hypouricemia



Year of publication 2019
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Applied Sciences-Basel
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Keywords SLC22A12; URAT1; hypouricemia; uric acid transporters; excretion fraction of uric acid
Description Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is caused by an inherited defect in the main (reabsorptive) renal urate transporters, URAT1 and GLUT9. RHUC is characterized by decreased concentrations of serum uric acid and an increase in its excretion fraction. Patients suffer from hypouricemia, hyperuricosuria, urolithiasis, and even acute kidney injury. We report the clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings of a pediatric patient with hypouricemia. Sequencing analysis of the coding region of SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 and a functional study of a novel RHUC1 variant in the Xenopus expression system were performed. The proband showed persistent hypouricemia (67-70 mu mol/L; ref. range 120-360 mu mol/L) and hyperuricosuria (24-34%; ref. range 7.3 +/- 1.3%). The sequencing analysis identified common non-synonymous allelic variants c.73G > A, c.844G > A, c.1049C > T in the SLC2A9 gene and rare variants c.973C > T, c.1300C > T in the SLC22A12 gene. Functional characterization of the novel RHUC associated c.973C > T (p. R325W) variant showed significantly decreased urate uptake, an irregular URAT1 signal on the plasma membrane, and reduced cytoplasmic staining. RHUC is an underdiagnosed disorder and unexplained hypouricemia warrants detailed metabolic and genetic investigations. A greater awareness of URAT1 and GLUT9 deficiency by primary care physicians, nephrologists, and urologists is crucial for identifying the disorder.

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