Alkoholový odvykací stav a delirium - od patofyziologie k léčbě

Title in English Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome and Delirium - from its Pathophysiology to Treatment


Year of publication 2014
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Česká a slovenská neurologie a neurochirurgie
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Neurology, neurosurgery, neurosciences
Keywords alcohol; withdrawal; syndrome; delirium; neurotoxicity
Description Alcohol dependence leads to adaptations of the nervous system that leads to withdrawal syndrome manifestation when regular alcohol consumption is abruptly discontinued. Withdrawal syndrome is characterized mainly by excessive excitatory and diminished inhibitory mechanisms, mediated by glutamatergic and gaba-ergic systems. This imbalance leads to anxiety, restlessness, tremor and decreased seizure threshold. Furthermore, changes to dopaminergic, serotoninergic, noradrenergic, opioid system, or corticotropin releasing hormone-related activation of stress reaction contribute to the clinical picture that includes vegetative hyperactivity, affective changes, dysphoria, hypohedonia, etc. Delirium - a complication of severe withdrawal - is a significant clinical syndrome that complicates health care management and may lead to fatal outcomes. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal and delirium is based on gradual establishment of a new balance of excitatory and inhibitory systems without the presence of external inhibitory substance - alcohol. In clinical practice the pathophysiology is reflected in the administration of gaba-ergic compounds (benzodiazepines, clomethiazole) with gradual dose tapering. Complex effect of alcohol with a number of related somatic complications requires additional systematic somatic care.

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