Tumor microRNAs Identified by Small RNA Sequencing as Potential Response Predictors in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

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Authors

MACHÁČKOVÁ Táňa TRACHTOVÁ Karolína PROCHÁZKA Vladimír GROLICH Tomáš FARKAŠOVÁ Martina FIALA Lukáš ŠEFR Roman KISS Igor SKROVINA Matej DOSOUDIL Michal BERINDAN-NEAGOE Ioana SVOBODA Marek SLABÝ Ondřej KALA Zdeněk

Year of publication 2020
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source CANCER GENOMICS & PROTEOMICS
MU Faculty or unit

Central European Institute of Technology

Citation
Web https://cgp.iiarjournals.org/content/cgp/17/3/249.full.pdf
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/cgp.20185
Keywords Rectal cancer; chemoradiotherapy; microRNA; prediction
Description Background/Aim: Rectal cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all colorectal cancers. Currently, the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil followed by curative surgery. Unfortunately, only 20% of patients with LARC present complete pathological response after CRT, whereas in 20-40% cases the response is poor or absent. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumor biopsy specimen have the potential to predict therapeutic response in LARC patients. Patients and Methods: In total 87 LARC patients treated by CRT were enrolled in our prospective study. To identify predictive miRNAs, we used small RNA sequencing in 40 tumor biopsy samples of LARC patients (20 responders, 20 non-responders) and qPCR validation of selected miRNA candidates. Results: In the discovery phase of the study, we identified 69 miRNAs to have significantly different expression between the group of responders (TRG 1,2) and a group of non-responders (TRG 4,5) to neoadjuvant CRT. Among these miRNAs, 48 showed a lower expression and 21 showed higher expression in tumor tissues from poorly responding LARC patients. Five miRNAs were selected for validation, but only miR-487a-3p was confirmed to have a significantly higher expression in the tumor biopsy specimens of non-responders to neoadjuvant CRT (p<0.0006, AUC=0.766). Gene Ontology (GO) clustering and pathway enrichment analysis of the miR-487a-3p mRNA targets, revealed potential mechanisms behind miR487a-3p roles in chemoradioresistance (e.g. TGF-beta signaling pathway, protein kinase activity, double-stranded DNA binding, or microRNAs in cancer). Conclusion: By combination of miRNA expression profiling and integrative computational biology we identified miR-487a-3p as a potential predictive biomarker of CRT response in LARC patients.
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