Universal two-point interaction of mediator KIX with 9aaTAD activation domains

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Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Journal of cellular biochemistry
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Web https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcb.30075
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.30075
Keywords 9aaTAD; activation domain; E2A; KIX; MLL; p53
Description The nine-amino-acid activation domain (9aaTAD) is defined by a short amino acid pattern including two hydrophobic regions (positions p3-4 and p6-7). The KIX domain of mediator transcription CBP interacts with the 9aaTAD domains of transcription factors MLL, E2A, NF-kB, and p53. In this study, we analyzed the 9aaTADs-KIX interactions by nuclear magnetic resonance. The positions of three KIX helixes alpha 1-alpha 2-alpha 3 are influenced by sterically-associated hydrophobic I611, L628, and I660 residues that are exposed to solvent. The positions of two rigid KIX helixes alpha 1 and alpha 2 generate conditions for structural folding in the flexible KIX-L12-G2 regions localized between them. The three KIX I611, L628, and I660 residues interact with two 9aaTAD hydrophobic residues in positions p3 and p4 and together build a hydrophobic core of five residues (5R). Numerous residues in 9aaTAD position p3 and p4 could provide this interaction. Following binding of the 9aaTAD to KIX, the hydrophobic I611, L628, and I660 residues are no longer exposed to solvent and their position changes inside the hydrophobic core together with position of KIX alpha 1-alpha 2-alpha 3 helixes. The new positions of the KIX helixes alpha 1 and alpha 2 allow the KIX-L12-G2 enhanced formation. The second hydrophobic region of the 9aaTAD (positions p6 and p7) provides strong binding with the KIX-L12-G2 region. Similarly, multiple residues in 9aaTAD position p6 and p7 could provide this interaction. In conclusion, both 9aaTAD regions p3, p4 and p6, p7 provide co-operative and highly universal binding to mediator KIX. The hydrophobic core 5R formation allows new positions of the rigid KIX alpha-helixes and enables the enhanced formation of the KIX-L12-G2 region. This contributes to free energy and is the key for the KIX-9aaTAD binding. Therefore, the 9aaTAD-KIX interactions do not operate under the rigid key-and-lock mechanism what explains the 9aaTAD natural variability.
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