Differentiation of Sialyl Linkages Using a Combination of Alkyl Esterification and Phenylhydrazine Derivatization: Application for N-Glycan Profiling in the Sera of Patients with Lung Cancer

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Authors

JEŽKOVÁ Petra SKŘIČKOVÁ Jana WIMMER Gejza ZELINKOVÁ Jana ZDRÁHAL Zbyněk LATTOVÁ Erika

Year of publication 2022
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
MU Faculty or unit

Central European Institute of Technology

Citation
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Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c00105
Keywords Mass-spectrometric analysis; Structural-characterization; Acid derivatization; Glycosylation; Adenocarcinoma; Oligosaccharides; Stabilization; Glycoproteins
Description Alterations in oligosaccharides and types of sialic acid (SA) attachments have been associated with different pathological states. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MS) is commonly used for glycosylation studies. However, native sialylated glycans are suppressed or not detected during MS experiments. Consequently, different approaches have been employed to neutralize the negative charge of the carboxyl group. In this study, we present the advantage of phenylhydrazine (PHN) labeling for the detection and efficient discrimination of SA linkages when this derivatization follows alkyl esterification. As expected, PHN-labeled sialylated oligosaccharides with the 2,6-linkage type can be easily recognized according to the additional shift in mass corresponding to the presence of a methyl or ethyl group. Surprisingly, oligosaccharides with the 2,3-linked SA residue instead of a lactone were detected carrying the second PHN unit. This was beneficial as no further processing after esterification was needed to stabilize the lactone form. Moreover, during tandem mass experiments, all modified glycans produced favorable fragmentation patterns with a coherent recognition of SA linkages. Although both types of esterification, herein called the EST-PHN approach, provided comparable results, methylation exhibited marginally higher linkage specificity than ethyl esterification. The simplicity and effectiveness of the methodology are demonstrated on the model compound, sialyllactose, and its applicability for biological studies is presented on N-glycan profiling in the sera of lung cancer patients.
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