Lignans in embryogenic culture of Schisandra chinensis

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Year of publication 2004
Type Article in Proceedings
Conference X. Dny rostlinné fyziologie
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Plant cultivation
Keywords Schisandra chinensis; lignans; embryogenic culture
Description Dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans are unique natural substances, found mainly in family Schisandraceae, the oldest family of dicotyledonous plants. Schisandra chinensis is well-known medicinal plants of traditional Chinese medicine particularly as tonic and antitusic. Their lignans have been shown to possess a broad range of biological effects, including antiviral, antioxidative, hepatoprotective and anticancer activities (Chen et al. 1997, Opletal et al. 2001). Commercial vegetative and seed propagation is limited. Introduction of micropropagation of selected plants via somatic embryogenesis would therefore contribute to rapid distribution of valuable genotypes. S. chinensis calluses, derived from endosperm and immature zygotic embryo were developed on MS and VW5 medium. Thidiazuron was tested as an inductor of somatic embryogenesis and compared with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Sustainability and morphological features of cultures depended on induction and maintenance regimes. Partially synchronous embryogenic system was established on induction medium containing thidiazuron. 2,4-dichlorphenoxyacetic acid and benzylaminopurine proved essential for the maintenance and abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol 4000 supplement for development and maturation of somatic embryos. After conversion, emblings were hardened in Climacell box and then cultured in a greenhouse. High performance liquid chromatography method on reversed phase was applied for profiling of lignans in various stages of the culture and as a potential tool for further selection and breeding. The highest amount (three times lower than in leaves of mother plant) was found in mature embryos, where the dominant substance was deoxyschizandrin. Lignans were detected in all stages of embryo development as a potential tool for further breeding. Content of lignans found in fruits (1.6 %) was higher than that in pericarps (0.31 %), leaves (0.2 %) and in vitro cultures (max. 0.047 %). However, using of plant cell culture for the production of lignans seems to be one of the methods capable to improve yields of individual lignans. The main lignan in samples of cell cultures was deoxyschizandrin, its maximum yield reached 0.13 % based on dry weight. Its concentration was 10 times lower than that in fruits and 3 times lower than that in leaves. Gomisin N, which was found more cytotoxic against HeLa cells than other lignans showed increased level after addition of polyamine putrescin into the cultivation medium. The determination of lignans by improved HPLC method is susceptible for selection of the best lines and theirs further breeding.
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