Molecular Biomarkers of Neuronal Injury in Epilepsy Shared with Neurodegenerative Diseases

Negi D, Granak S, Shorter S, O'Leary VB, Rektor I, Ovsepian SV.

Neurotherapeutics. 2023 Mar 8. doi: 10.1007/s13311-023-01355-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36884195.


17 Apr 2023

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In neurodegenerative diseases, changes in neuronal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood are viewed as potential biomarkers of the primary pathology in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent reports suggest, however, that level of neuronal proteins in fluids also alters in several types of epilepsy in various age groups, including children. With increasing evidence supporting clinical and sub-clinical seizures in Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's disease, and in other less common neurodegenerative conditions, these findings call into question the specificity of neuronal protein response to neurodegenerative process and urge analysis of the effects of concomitant epilepsy and other comorbidities. In this article, we revisit the evidence for alterations in neuronal proteins in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid associated with epilepsy with and without neurodegenerative diseases. We discuss shared and distinctive characteristics of changes in neuronal markers, review their neurobiological mechanisms, and consider the emerging opportunities and challenges for their future research and diagnostic use.

Keywords: Axonal degeneration; Epileptic seizures; Fluid biomarkers; Neurodegeneration; Neurofilament light chain; Neurogranin; Tau protein.

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