NEURAL IMAGING OF PARKINSON´S DISEASE: A WORLD-WIDE CONSORTIUM APPROACH
Ysbrand D Van Der Werf, Amsterdam
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STROKE BRNO is an interdisciplinary research cluster with the aim of connecting the knowledge and expertise of academic and industrial partners and ensuring the effective use of knowledge from basic research in clinical practice.
Background: There are few contemporary epidemiological data on stroke for Central Europe. We performed a population-based study evaluating the incidence of stroke, stroke types, and ischemic stroke (IS) subtypes in Brno, the second biggest city in the Czech Republic (CR).
Methods: Using the National Registry of Hospitalized Patients, and hospital databases, we identified all patients hospitalized with a stroke diagnosis in Brno hospitals in 2011. For Brno residents with validated stroke diagnosis, we calculated (a) the overall incidence of hospitalized stroke, (b) incidence rates for IS, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and (c) incidence rates for IS subtypes. We calculated the average annual age- and sex-standardized incidence (European Standard Population and World Health Organization), to compare our results with other studies.
Results: The overall crude incidence of stroke in Brno was 213/100,000 population. The incidence of stroke for stroke types were as follows: SAH, 6.9; ICH, 26.4; and IS, 180 cases per 100,000 population, respectively.
Diseases with the highest burden for society such as stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and others are due to blood clots. Preclinical and clinical techniques to study blood clots are important tools for translational research of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities that target blood clots. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) printed middle cerebral artery model to image clots under flow conditions using preclinical imaging techniques including fluorescent whole-body imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed X-ray microtomography (microCT). Both liposome-based, fibrin-targeted, and non-targeted contrast agents were proven to provide a sufficient signal for clot imaging within the model under flow conditions. The application of the model for clot targeting studies and thrombolytic studies using preclinical imaging techniques is shown here. For the first time, a novel method of thrombus labeling utilizing barium sulphate (Micropaque®) is presented here as an example of successfully employed contrast agents for in vitro experiments evaluating the time-course of thrombolysis and thus the efficacy of a thrombolytic drug, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA).
Following nerve injury, disintegrated axonal mitochondria distal to the injury site release mitochondrial formylated peptides and DNA that can induce activation and inflammatory profiling of Schwann cells via formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), respectively. We studied RT4 schwannoma cells to investigate the regulation of Fpr2 and TLR9 after stimulation with fMLF as a prototypical formylated peptide. RT4 cells were treated with fMLF at various concentrations and times with and without pretreatment with inhibitors (chloroquine for activated TLR9, PBP10 for Fpr2). Western blots of Fpr2, TLR9, p-p38, p-NFκB, and IL-6 were compared in relation to inflammatory profiling of RT4 cells and chemokine receptors (CCR2, CXCR4) as potential co-receptors of Fpr2. fMLF stimulation upregulated Fpr2 in RT4 cells at low concentrations (10 nM and 100 nM) but higher concentrations were required (10 µM and 50 µM) when the cells were pretreated with an activated TLR9 inhibitor.
Background: Experience of early-life socioeconomic deprivation (ELSD) may increase the risk of mental disorders in young adulthood. This association may be mediated by structural and functional alterations of the hippocampus.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 122 participants of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Information about ELSD was collected via questionnaire from mothers during the first 18 months of participants' lives. At age 23-24, participants underwent examination by structural magnetic resonance imaging, resting-state functional connectivity and assessment of depressive symptoms (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). The association of ELSD with brain outcomes in young adulthood was assessed with correlations, linear regression (adjusting for sex, socioeconomic position and mother's mental health) and moderated mediation analysis.
Objective: To undertake an effectiveness and safety analysis of EVT in patients with LVO and NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≤6 using datasets of multicenter and multinational nature.
Methods: We pooled patients with anterior circulation occlusion from 3 prospective international cohorts. Patients were eligible if presentation occurred within 12 hours from last known well and baseline NIHSS ≤6. Primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-1 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included neurologic deterioration at 24 hours (change in NIHSS of ≥2 points), mRS 0-2 at 90 days, and 90-day all-cause mortality. We used propensity score matching to adjust for nonrandomized treatment allocation.
Results: Among 236 patients who fit inclusion criteria, 139 received EVT and 97 received medical management. Compared to medical management, the EVT group was younger (65 vs 72 years; p < 0.001), had more proximal occlusions (p < 0.001), and less frequently received concurrent IV thrombolysis (57.7% vs 71.2%; p = 0.04).
Background and purpose: There is interest in what happens over time to the thrombus after intravenous alteplase. We study the effect of alteplase on thrombus structure and its impact on clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke.
Methods: Intravenous alteplase treated stroke patients with intracranial internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion identified on baseline computed tomography angiography and with follow-up vascular imaging (computed tomography angiography or first run of angiography before endovascular therapy) were enrolled from INTERRSeCT study (Identifying New Approaches to Optimize Thrombus Characterization for Predicting Early Recanalization and Reperfusion With IV Alteplase and Other Treatments Using Serial CT Angiography). Thrombus movement after intravenous alteplase was classified into complete recanalization, thrombus migration, thrombus fragmentation, and no change.
Perinatal exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) affects brain development and might increase the incidence of psychopathology later in life, which seems to be related to a dysregulation of endocannabinoid and/or dopaminergic systems. We here evaluated the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Cnr1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) in perinatal THC-(pTHC) exposed male rats, focusing on the role of DNA methylation analyzed by pyrosequencing. Simultaneously, the molecular and behavioral abnormalities at two different time points (i.e., neonatal age and adulthood) and the potential preventive effect of peripubertal treatment with cannabidiol, a non-euphoric component of Cannabis, were assessed. The DRD2 methylation was also evaluated in a cohort of patients with schizophrenia.
Deep learning (DL) methods have in recent years yielded impressive results in medical imaging, with the potential to function as clinical aid to radiologists. However, DL models in medical imaging are often trained on public research cohorts with images acquired with a single scanner or with strict protocol harmonization, which is not representative of a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to investigate how well a DL model performs in unseen clinical datasets-collected with different scanners, protocols and disease populations-and whether more heterogeneous training data improves generalization. In total, 3117 MRI scans of brains from multiple dementia research cohorts and memory clinics, that had been visually rated by a neuroradiologist according to Scheltens' scale of medial temporal atrophy (MTA), were included in this study. By training multiple versions of a convolutional neural network on different subsets of this data to predict MTA ratings, we assessed the impact of including images from a wider distribution during training had on performance in external memory clinic data.