MOVING AWAY FROM SEIZURES: SIMPLIFYING AND IMPROVING THE PRESURGICAL EEG WORK-UP OF EPILEPSY
Birgit Frauscher, Montreal
Birgit Frauscher, Montreal
Ivan Rektor was one of the prize winners in The City of Brno Award in the field of medical sciences and pharmacy for 2020.
Congratulations to prof. MUDr. Milan Brázdil, Ph.D., head of the 1st Department of Neurology, at St. Anne`s University Hospital Brno and LF MU with the Center for Epilepsy Brno to receive the prize Ambassador for Epilepsy.
Purpose: Spinal cord gray-matter imaging is valuable for a number of applications, but remains challenging. The purpose of this work was to compare various MRI protocols at 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T for visualizing the gray matter.
Methods: In vivo data of the cervical spinal cord were collected from nine different imaging centers. Data processing consisted of automatically segmenting the spinal cord and its gray matter and co-registering back-to-back scans. We computed the SNR using two methods (SNR_single using a single scan and SNR_diff using the difference between back-to-back scans) and the white/gray matter contrast-to-noise ratio per unit time. Synthetic phantom data were generated to evaluate the metrics performance. Experienced radiologists qualitatively scored the images.
Although the link between microbial infections and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated in multiple studies, the involvement of pathogens in the development of AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated the frequency of the 10 most commonly cited viral (HSV-1, EBV, HHV-6, HHV-7, and CMV) and bacterial (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema spp.) pathogens in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues of AD patients. We have used an in-house multiplex PCR kit for simultaneous detection of five bacterial and five viral pathogens in serum and CSF samples from 50 AD patients and 53 healthy controls (CTRL). We observed a significantly higher frequency rate of AD patients who tested positive for Treponema spp. compared to controls (AD: 62.2 %; CTRL: 30.3 %; p-value = 0.007).
Brain metastases are the most frequent intracranial tumors in adults and the cause of death in almost one-fourth of cases. The incidence of brain metastases is steadily increasing. The main reason for this increase could be the introduction of new and more efficient therapeutic strategies that lead to longer survival but, at the same time, cause a higher risk of brain parenchyma infiltration. In addition, the advances in imaging methodology, which provide earlier identification of brain metastases, may also be a reason for the higher recorded number of patients with these tumors. Metastasis is a complex biological process that is still largely unexplored, influenced by many factors and involving many molecules. A deeper understanding of the process will allow the discovery of more effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that could improve the quality and length of patient survival.
Differential diagnosis of brain lesion pathologies is complex, but it is nevertheless crucial for appropriate clinical management. Advanced imaging methods, including diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient, can help discriminate between brain mass lesions such as glioblastoma, brain metastasis, brain abscesses as well as brain lymphomas. These pathologies are characterized by blood-brain barrier alterations and have been extensively studied. However, the changes in the blood-brain barrier that are observed around brain pathologies and that contribute to the development of vasogenic brain edema are not well described. Some infiltrative brain pathologies such as glioblastoma are characterized by glioma cell infiltration in the brain tissue around the tumor mass and thus affect the nature of the vasogenic edema.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally considered a sporadic disorder, but a strong genetic background is often found. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying genetic cause of PD in two affected siblings and to subsequently assess the role of mutations in Cathepsin B (CTSB) in susceptibility to PD. A typical PD family was identified and whole-exome sequencing was performed in two affected siblings. Variants of interest were validated using Sanger sequencing. CTSB p.Gly284Val was genotyped in 2077 PD patients and 615 unrelated healthy controls from the Czech Republic, Ireland, Poland, Ukraine, and the USA. The gene burden analysis was conducted for the CTSB gene in an additional 769 PD probands from Mayo Clinic Florida familial PD cohort.
White Matter Lesions (WML) are a radiological finding common in aged subjects. We explored the impact of WML on underlying neurodegenerative processes. We focused on the impact of WML on two neurodegenerative diseases with different pathology. In this cross-sectional study of 137 subjects (78 female, 59 men, mean age 67.2; 43-87 years), we compared WML in healthy controls (HC; n = 55), patients with Alzheimer's disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and Parkinson's disease patients with normal cognition and with MCI. Subjects with AD and aMCI were treated as one group (n = 40), subjects with PD and PDMCI were another group (n = 42).
Epilepsy presurgical investigation may include focal intracortical single-pulse electrical stimulations with depth electrodes, which induce cortico-cortical evoked potentials at distant sites because of white matter connectivity. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials provide a unique window on functional brain networks because they contain sufficient information to infer dynamical properties of large-scale brain connectivity, such as preferred directionality and propagation latencies. Here, we developed a biologically informed modelling approach to estimate the neural physiological parameters of brain functional networks from the cortico-cortical evoked potentials recorded in a large multicentric database.
Parkinson's disease dysgraphia (PDYS), one of the earliest signs of Parkinson's disease (PD), has been researched as a promising biomarker of PD and as the target of a noninvasive and inexpensive approach to monitoring the progress of the disease. However, although several approaches to supportive PDYS diagnosis have been proposed (mainly based on handcrafted features (HF) extracted from online handwriting or the utilization of deep neural networks), it remains unclear which approach provides the highest discrimination power and how these approaches can be transferred between different datasets and languages.