Reseach and Educational Neuroscience Platform
CHRISTOS GANOS, BERLIN
Ivan Rektor was one of the prize winners in The City of Brno Award in the field of medical sciences and pharmacy for 2020.
Congratulations to prof. MUDr. Milan Brázdil, Ph.D., head of the 1st Department of Neurology, at St. Anne`s University Hospital Brno and LF MU with the Center for Epilepsy Brno to receive the prize Ambassador for Epilepsy.
High-grade gliomas are primary brain tumors with poor prognosis, despite surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. We present two cases of long-term survival in patients treated for high-grade glioma and concomitant prolonged bacterial wound infection. The first patient treated for glioblastoma IDH-wildtype had been without disease progression for 61 months from the first resected recurrence. Despite incomplete chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in the second patient with anaplastic astrocytoma IDH-mutant, she died without disease relapse after 14 years from the diagnosis due to other comorbidities. We assume that the documented prolonged survival could be related to the bacterial infection.
Keywords: anaplastic astrocytoma; glioblastoma; high-grade glioma; prolonged survival; wound infection.
Background: In our previous study, repeated sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the auditory feedback area were shown to improve hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and led to changes in functional connectivity within the left-sided articulatory networks.
Objectives: We analyzed data from this previous study and assessed the effects of rTMS for HD in PD on the diffusion parameters of the left anterior arcuate fasciculus (AAF), which connects the auditory feedback area with motor regions involved in articulation.
Methods: Patients were assigned to ten sessions of real or sham 1 Hz stimulation over the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Stimulation effects were evaluated using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and by speech therapist using a validated tool (Phonetics score of the Dysarthric Profile) at baseline, immediately after 2 weeks of stimulation, and at follow-up visits at week 6 and 10 after the baseline.
Introduction: Various analgesics are used to control intense headaches in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. In addition to pain control, it has been shown that some analgesics can affect various pathophysiological cascades. Therefore, we devised a study to assess whether the use of metamizole has a significant impact on the development of ischemic complications, hydrocephalus, and the overall outcome in patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the context of the other non-opioids and opioids effects.
Methods: In our retrospective, single-center cohort study, we enrolled 192 patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We recorded their initial clinical status, comorbidities, and the daily dosage of analgesics over 14 days of hospitalization after the onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Using univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis, we assessed the influence of various factors, including analgesics, on the development of delayed cerebral ischemia and hydrocephalus, as well as on 2-week and 6-month outcomes.
Histone 3 lysine27-to-methionine (H3-K27M) mutations most frequently occur in diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) of the childhood pons but are also increasingly recognized in adults. Their potential heterogeneity at different ages and midline locations is vastly understudied. Here, through dissecting the single-cell transcriptomic, epigenomic and spatial architectures of a comprehensive cohort of patient H3-K27M DMGs, we delineate how age and anatomical location shape glioma cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic features in light of the shared driver mutation. We show that stem-like oligodendroglial precursor-like cells, present across all clinico-anatomical groups, display varying levels of maturation dependent on location. We reveal a previously underappreciated relationship between mesenchymal cancer cell states and age, linked to age-dependent differences in the immune microenvironment. Further, we resolve the spatial organization of H3-K27M DMG cell populations and identify a mitotic oligodendroglial-lineage niche.
The transverse-axial tubular system (tubular system) of cardiomyocytes plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. To determine the area of the tubular membrane in relation to the area of the surface membrane, indirect measurements through the determination of membrane capacitances are currently used in addition to microscopic methods. Unlike existing electrophysiological methods based on an irreversible procedure (osmotic shock), the proposed new approach uses a reversible short-term intermittent increase in the electrical resistance of the extracellular medium. The resulting increase in the lumen resistance of the tubular system makes it possible to determine separate capacitances of the tubular and surface membranes. Based on the analysis of the time course of the capacitive current, computational relations were derived to quantify the elements of the electrical equivalent circuit of the measured cardiomyocyte including both capacitances.
The authors present an anatomical study and clinical experience with radial forearm flap (RFF) and pronator quadratus muscle (PQM) application in the reconstruction of various body areas. The aim was to describe the anatomical placement and proportions of the PQM, the anatomical location of the major arterial branch of the radial artery supplying the PQM, and the application of this knowledge in clinical practice. The anatomical study was based upon an analysis of 13 fresh adult cadaver upper extremities, of which nine were female and four male; both arms from the same donors were used in four cases. The study of the PQM was performed using a dye-containing intraarterial injection, standard macro- and micro-preparation techniques, and chemical digestion. The data on the PQM size in males and females, thickness of the radial artery branch (the principal artery nourishing the muscle), and its position were analysed. The radial artery branch nourishing the PQM was identified in all cadaveric specimens of the anatomical study.
Background: Brain injuries are the most common cause of death in productive age. Besides the extent of the injury, other systemic factors can also affect the outcome. Patients suffering from severe brain injury often experience extracranial inflammatory complications during the early period of treatment. Here, we investigate the changes in immunity in patients with brain injury.
Methods: 121 patients and 92 healthy controls were included in the research. Blood samples were collected on admission and analyzed by flow cytometry and biochemical methods. Multiple clusters of differentiation (CD) and antibody levels were investigated. The results were compared between patients and controls. In addition, results of two classes of severity (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, of 3-5 vs. 6-8) were also compared.
Purpose: A supervised deep learning (DL) approach for frequency and phase correction (FPC) of MRS data recently showed encouraging results, but obtaining transients with labels for supervised learning is challenging. This work investigates the feasibility and efficiency of unsupervised deep learning-based FPC.
Methods: Two novel deep learning-based FPC methods (deep learning-based Cr referencing and deep learning-based spectral registration), which use a priori physics domain knowledge, are presented. The proposed networks were trained, validated, and evaluated using simulated, phantom, and publicly accessible in vivo MEGA-edited MRS data. The performance of our proposed FPC methods was compared with other generally used FPC methods, in terms of precision and time efficiency. A new measure was proposed in this study to evaluate the FPC method performance.