Vliv uvolnění mediálních stabilizátorů kolena na velikost korekce u vysoké valgizační opening-wedge osteotomie tibie; anatomická studie na kadaverech

Title in English The Effect of Releasing the Medial Stabilisers of the Knee on the Magnitude of Correction in Opening-Wedge High-Tibial Valgus Osteotomy. Anatomy Study on Cadavers

OKÁL František HART Radek KOMZÁK Martin

Year of publication 2012
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae čechoslovaca
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Surgery incl. transplantology
Keywords high-tibial osteotomy; opening-wedge; medial collateral ligament; pes anserinus; soft tissue release; computer navigation; cadaver study
Description PURPOSE OF THE STUDY When a larger opening of high-tibial osteotomy is necessary to achieve good correction of the lower extremity axis, partial release of the attachments of the medial stabilisers of the knee may be required. The aim of the study was to ascertain, in cadaver specimens, the effect of loosening the medial knee stabilisers on the magnitude of correction in medial opening-wedge high-tibial valgus osteotomy. RESULTS The results were statistically analysed using descriptive statistical methods and the two-sample paired t-test with the level of statistical significance set at p less than 0.05. Loosening of the medial stabilisers one by one under a constant load led to a statistically significant change in alignment. The most significant change in angulation, both in clinical and statistical terms, was that of 3.4 degrees occurring after the superficial portion of the medial collateral ligament was made loose under a constant force of 100 N applied to osteotomy. Thus, this loosening contributed by 62% to an overall change of 5.5 degrees in the lower extremity mechanical axis, as compared with the condition not allowing for loosening of the stabilisers. Under a load of 150 N applied to osteotomy, loosening of the medial collateral ligament resulted in a change by 4.1 degrees, which accounted for 56% of an overall change of 7.3 degrees that occurred after all stabilisers were released. On distraction of the osteotomy using a higher force, an increase in a stabilising effect of the pes anserinus was apparent. DISCUSSION The evolution of angle-stable implants has advanced options for reliable fixation of high-tibial corrective osteotomy which involves cutting out a wedge and forcing it open on the medial side. These implants provide stable fixation even when a large correction of the limb mechanical axis is required, and allow for rehabilitation with early weight-bearing. As with a large correction the force needed to make the wedge open is increasing, it is necessary to consider loosening of the medial stabilisers of the knee. According to our knowledge, no study on the effect of individual medial stabilising structures of the knee on the force required to open high-tibial osteotomy with the wedge opened medially has been published. CONCLUSIONS The process of correcting lower extremity alignment by high-tibial opening-wedge valgus osteotomy brings about an increase in tension of the stabilisers on the concave side of the deformity. Our results show an important role of releasing the superficial portion of the medial collateral ligament in the reduction of forces necessary to correct a deformity.

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