Hypertenze a srdeční selhání

Title in English Hypertension and heart failure

BLAHA Mojmír

Year of publication 2017
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Kardiologická revue - Interní medicína
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Other specializations of internal medicine
Keywords hypertension; left ventricle hypertrophy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Description Hypertensive heart disease involves a broad spectrum of alterations of the left ventricle, including asymptomatic left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH, either concentric or eccentric pattern) and clinical heart failure (with either preserved or reduced left ventricle ejection fraction – HFpEF, HFrEF). There is a considerable interindividual variability in the progression from hypertension to LVH in both the magnitude of the increase in LV mass and its geometric pattern (ventricular dilatation or wall thickening). Some of these differences are likely attributable to differences in the pressure load (differences in the amount of load, time and speed of pressure growth), concomitant medical conditions, the underlying neurohumoral status and some genetic influences. The progression from concentric hypertrophy to dilated cardiac failure (HFrEF) in the absence of myocardial infarction may not be a common pathway. However, some hypertonic patients may progress directly to dilated cardiac failure without previous myocardial infarction or concentric hypertrophy. It has not been fully explained why some hypertensive subjects develop LV dilatation and others concentric LVH. The mechanisms for progression from asymptomatic concentric LVH to clinical HFpEF have only been unravelled in part. At present, this transition appears to be associated with progressive adverse remodelling of the extracellular matrix and increase in LV filling pressure. Treatment of hypertension in patients with HF must take into account the type of HF. In general, patients with hypertension and HFrEF should be treated, if possible, with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), alternatively angiotensin receptor antagonist, or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), a beta-blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Diuretics are used to treat symptomatic hypervolemia (pulmonary and/or peripheral oedema) or to further reduce blood pressure, if needed, in hypervolemic patients. The optimal therapy of hypertension in patients with HFpEF (i.e. diastolic dysfunction) is not completely clear. Most antihypertensive agents can reduce LV mass and it seems that this is the right way to reduce the risk of heart failure.

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