Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus in focal epilepsy
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|MU Faculty or unit
|Anterior thalamic nuclei; Focal epilepsy; Deep brain stimulation
|Objective: To review the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thala-mus (ANT-DBS) and the predictors of its effectiveness, safety, and adverse effects. Methods: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating ANT-DBS therapy for epilepsy. Out of 332 references, 77 focused on focal epilepsies were reviewed. Results: The DBS effect is probably due to decreased synchronization of epileptic activity in the cortex. The potential mechanisms from cellular to brain network levels are presented. The ANT might participate actively in the network elaborating focal seizures. The effects of ANT-DBS differed in various studies; ANT-DBS was linked with a 41% seizure frequency reduction at 1 year, 69% at 5 years, and 75% at 7 years. The most frequently reported adverse effects, depression and memory impairment, were considered non -serious in the long-term follow-up view. ANT-DBS also has been used in a few cases to treat status epilep-ticus. Conclusions: We reviewed the clinical literature and identified several factors that may predict seizure outcome following DBS therapy. More large-scale trials are required since there is a need to explore stim-ulation settings, apply patient-tailored therapy, and identify the presurgical predictors of patient response. Significance: A critical review of the published literature on ANT-DBS in focal epilepsy is presented. ANT-DBS mechanisms are not fully understood; possible explanations are provided. Biomarkers of ANT-DBS effectiveness may lead to patient-tailored therapy.