Neurologické komplikace diabetu mellitu

Title in English Neurological complications of diabetes mellitus


Year of publication 2023
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Vnitřní lékařství
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Keywords diabetes mellitus; polyneuropathies; mononeuropathies; neuropathic pain; cerebrovascular disorders; stroke; cognitive dysfunction
Description The most important microvascular neurological complication of diabetes mellitus is diabetic neuropathy. In addition to the most common distal sensory or sensory-motor polyneuropathy, this term also includes autonomic neuropathy and a number of focal forms (mononeuropathy, plexopathy). Diagnosis is based on history and clinical examination; the choice of other diagnostic methods (nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, autonomic nerve function tests, assessment of intraepidermal innervation from skin biopsy, etc.) depends on the type of nerve fibers affected. The basic intervention in the therapy and prevention of the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy is long-term optimal control of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, and physical activity. In painful forms, drugs affecting neuropathic pain are also used, i.e. antiepileptics from the group of modulators of the ?2? subunit of calcium channels (gabapentin, pregabalin) and antidepressants from the group of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, venlafaxine) or tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline). Thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) and a number of opioids also have an analgesic effect. Diabetes mellitus is also an independent cerebrovascular risk factor and thus contributes to the development of ischaemic stroke. It also significantly increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment.
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