Primární aplikace podtlakové terapie u otevřených zlomenin III. stupně a její vliv na vznik infekčních komplikací

Title in English Effect of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Infectious Complications in Grade III Open Fractures


Year of publication 2016
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae čechoslovaca
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Traumatology and orthopaedic surgery
Keywords open fracture; negative pressure wound therapy; continual wound lavage; infection
Description PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Grade III open fractures are associated with infectious complications in 25-66% of injuries. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied to an injured soft tissue coverage provides an impermeable barrier between the injured structures and the external environment, in addition to early secretion draining and a positive effect on the site of application. All this also prevents secondary bacterial contamination. The objective of the study was to compare the results of treatment methods in view of infectious complications in patients with soft tissue injury in grade-III open fractures managed either by NPWT and primary closure or by covering with combined dressing fabric (COM) in combination with continual wound lavage. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study comprised 77 patients with 80 grade III open fractures treated in the years 2008-2012; of these, 39 patients with 41 fractures met the inclusion criteria and were finally evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. The control group included 19 patients with 20 fractures treated by the standard surgical procedure using stabilisation with an external fixator or intramedullary nail, thorough soft tissue debridement, continual wound lavage and suture of skin lesions or using a primary coverage of the defect with COM. The trial group consisted of 20 patients with 21 fractures treated according to the same principle, but NPWT was applied to injured soft tissue coverage first and skin suture or any other type of skin defect coverage was carried out when the healing process was good and bacteriological findings were negative. The results of both methods were evaluated based on the following criteria: development of superficial or deep infection in the wound, interval to negative bacteriological findings and osteomyelitis rate. The results were analysed by Fisher's exact test and the Man Whitney U test. RESULTS Infectious complications were recorded in a total of 15 (37%) fractures: 11 (55%) in the control group and four (19.1%) in the trial group (p = 0.025). Recurrent infection was observed in five control group fractures (25%) and in none of the trial group fractures (p = 0.021). Osteomyelitis was found only in two control group fractures. The average interval before negative bacteriological results were obtained was 22 days in the control group and 12 days in the trial group (p = 0.001). DISCUSSION The NPWT use as a temporary coverage of soft tissue defects in open fractures results in a significant reduction of infectious complications, as shown by many relevant studies including this study. In comparison with Gopal's "fix and flap" concept, the NPWT in our patient group had slightly higher incidence of infectious complications (15.4% versus 19.1%). However, these results can be achieved only if a specialist in reconstructive surgery and appropriate technical facilities are readily available. If this is not possible, then the NPWT, in comparison with conventional methods, provides the best possible way of temporary protection for an injured soft tissue coverage. CONCLUSIONS Application of NPWT within the primary treatment of injured soft tissue coverage in grade III open fractures results in a statistically significant reduction of bacterial contamination at the site of injury, as well as a reduction of the subsequent incidence of infectious complications. Primary application of NPWT also significantly reduced the risk of recurrent infection.

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