In Vitro and In Vivo Models of CLL-T Cell Interactions: Implications for Drug Testing

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Year of publication 2022
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source CANCERS
MU Faculty or unit

Central European Institute of Technology

Keywords chronic lymphocytic leukemia; T cells; models; CD40L; IL-4; IL-21; interleukin; venetoclax; ibrutinib; fludarabine; B cells; interactions; microenvironment; therapy resistance; co-culture; xenograft; Eµ-TCL1
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Description T cells are key components in environments that support chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), activating CLL-cell proliferation and survival. Here, we review in vitro and in vivo model systems that mimic CLL–T-cell interactions, since these are critical for CLL-cell division and resistance to some types of therapy (such as DNA-damaging drugs or BH3-mimetic venetoclax). We discuss approaches for direct CLL-cell co-culture with autologous T cells, models utilizing supportive cell lines engineered to express T-cell factors (such as CD40L) or stimulating CLL cells with combinations of recombinant factors (CD40L, interleukins IL4 or IL21, INF?) and additional B-cell receptor (BCR) activation with anti-IgM antibody. We also summarize strategies for CLL co-transplantation with autologous T cells into immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID, NSG, NOG) to generate patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and the role of T cells in transgenic CLL mouse models based on TCL1 overexpression (Eµ-TCL1). We further discuss how these in vitro and in vivo models could be used to test drugs to uncover the effects of targeted therapies (such as inhibitors of BTK, PI3K, SYK, AKT, MEK, CDKs, BCL2, and proteasome) or chemotherapy (fludarabine and bendamustine) on CLL–T-cell interactions and CLL proliferation.
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