Alcohol consumption in population aged 25-65 years living in the metropolis of South Moravia



Rok publikování 2017
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Central European Journal of Public Health
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Lékařská fakulta

Obor Hygiena
Klíčová slova alcohol consumption; alcoholic beverages; alcohol units; epidemiology; drinking patterns; Czech Republic; cross-sectional survey; gender differences; binge drinking; cluster analysis
Popis Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption in a representative sample of the population of the city of Brno, as part of research on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Cross-sectional survey on a sample of 2,160 randomly selected residents 35–65 years old was carried out. For the invited volunteers who became a part of the investigation, alcohol consumption was determined in a controlled, face to face interview structured in accordance with a special questionnaire form. The frequency of alcohol consumption during the previous year was determined, in more detail during the last month (including quantification using “units of alcohol”, their normal and maximum level of drinking, and any association between alcohol consumption and meals), and during the last week in the form of a complete, beverage specified and quantified 7-day recall period. Typical patterns of alcohol consumption were explored by the means of cluster analysis. Results: During the past 12 months, 90.0% of the men and 79.0% of the women had consumed alcohol, the rest can be considered abstinent. The most commonly reported frequency was 2–4 times per week (35.6% of the men), or 1–3 times per month (22.8% of the women). Daily or almost daily consumption was reported by 24.8% of the men and 12.8% of the women. The number of units of alcohol consumed usually on one occasion amounts to an average of 3.88 ± 4.80 for the men and 2.25 ± 1.39 for the women, but the amount most often cited by both sexes was 2 drinks (36.4% of the men and 40.4% of the women). The largest amount consumed on any occasion during the last 30 days was 5 or more units in 69.3% of the men, and in 33.9% of the women it was 4 or more units (this amount of alcohol leads to a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08, the border of drunkenness). In 19.9% of the men and 7.5% of the women, this border was exceeded more than 5 times in the past month. Only 14.7% of the men and 10.3% of the women reported that the majority of their alcohol consumption occurs with food; on the contrary, 64.3% of the men and 77.6% of the women drinkers drink it either always without food or only rarely with it. During the past week, 81.6% of the men and 63.4% of the women drank alcohol (p < 0.001, chi-square). The average value of consumption for one man was 11.57 ± 11.91 doses, and for one woman 4.68 ± 6.38 doses per week (p < 0.001, t-test). A total of 17.8% of the men exceeded the limit of 21 doses per week, and 7.4% of the women exceeded 14 doses/week. After converting the weekly consumption into the number of units of alcohol per week expressed in litres per year, the total average consumption was 5.01 ± 6.36 litres; for the men 7.26 ± 7.62 litres and for the women 3.02 ± 4.08 litres of pure alcohol per person annually. Consumption during the week was not uniform (p < 0.001, ANOVA), with the highest occurring on Saturday, followed by Friday. The men mostly drank beer (62.9% of the total volume of alcohol), the women wine (68.6%). The cluster analysis identified 5 clusters of respondents, based on a set of alcohol consumption variables, as follows: very heavy drinking (1.6% of the respondents who drink alcohol); heavy drinking (8.8%); binge drinking (6.3%); moderate drinking (31.1%); and occasional drinking (52.3%). Conclusions: The results show a relatively high consumption of alcohol in the examined group. The recommended weekly limits were exceeded by only a small portion, but that consumption had a binge character. Conversion into a form allowing comparison with conventional national statistics shows a significantly lower consumption than these reported statements. Overall, men consume significantly more alcohol than women.

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