A novel temperature-controlled open source microcontroller based sampler for collection of exhaled breath condensate in point-of-care diagnostics
|Článek v odborném periodiku
|Časopis / Zdroj
|Fakulta / Pracoviště MU
|Exhaled breath condensate; Arduino; Collection device; Temperature control; Ion analysis; Capillary electrophoresis
|Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an attractive, non-invasive sample for clinical diagnostics. During EBC collection, its composition is influenced by the collection temperature, a factor that is often not thoroughly monitored and controlled. In this study, we assembled a novel, simple, portable, and inexpensive device for EBC collection, able to maintain a stable temperature at any value between -7 degrees C and +12 degrees C. The temperature was controlled using a microcontroller and a thermoelectric cooler that was employed to cool the aluminum block holding the glass tube or the polypropylene syringe. The performance of the novel sampler was compared with the passively cooled RTubeTM and a simple EBC sampler, in which the temperature was steadily increasing during sampling. The developed sampler was able to maintain a stable temperature within +/- 1 degrees C. To investigate the influence of different sampling temperatures (i.e., +12,-7, -80 degrees C) on the analyte content in EBC, inorganic ions and organic acids were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector. It was shown that the concentration of metabolites decreased significantly with decreasing temperature. The portability and the ability to keep a stable temperature during EBC sampling makes the developed sampler suitable for point-of-care diagnostics.